Goal 4: Unity and Diversity of Life. 4.01 Classification. Taxonomy: science of classifying living things ARISTOTLE gave us our first system of classifying 2 Kingdoms – Plants and Animals Later…3 Kingdoms – Plants, Animals and Protists. Classification.
Taxonomy: science of classifying living things
ARISTOTLE gave us our first system of classifying
2 Kingdoms – Plants and Animals
Later…3 Kingdoms – Plants, Animals and Protists
And until recently…there were 5 kingdoms: Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi and Monera
Today…we group living things into 6 kingdoms…all of the above…except MONERA (the bacteria) have been divided into 2 kingdoms: Eubacteria & Archaebacteria
Why do the kingdoms keep changing?
New technology & new information about living things cause us to have to adjust our groupings
KINGS PLAY CHESS ON FAT GREEN STOOLS
Two name system of classification.
Genus + Species
Homo sapien (humans)
Canisfamiliaris (domesticated dogs)
Felisdomesticus (domesticated cats)
Quercusalba (white oak)
(the more similar DNA is b/w organisms; the more closely related they are)
(more similar embryonic stages; more closely related: for example: all vertebrates have a tail & gill slits as embryos)
(similarities in structural features)
Used to show relationships between organisms.
Who evolved first.
Which organisms are either very closely related or distantly related.
Which phylum is the most closely related to the Chordata?
Biochemical or DNA similarities help to demonstrate relatedness between organisms.
(cytochrome C is a protein found in the mitochondria)
Similarities during embryological development can demonstrate how two organisms are related.
Similarities in the structure of these frog skulls ( 6 different species) show how closely they are related.
No complex organ
Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic
No complex organ systems
Complex organ systems
Can you identify these birds using the dichotomous key?
Bird W: Geospiza
Bird X: Platyspiza
Bird Y: Certhidea
Bird Z: Camarhynchus
Transport: How organisms move food and wastes throughout their bodies.
Excretion: How organisms get rid of their waste and balance their fluids.
Regulation: How organisms control body processes – i.e. hormones and nervous system
Respiration: How organisms exchange gases (O2 and CO2) with the environment
Nutrition: How organisms break down and absorb foods.
Synthesis: How organisms build necessary molecules.
Reproduction: Continuation of the species thru sexual or asexual reproduction.
Growth and Development: getting bigger & maturing
Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena
Transport, Excretion and Respiration: osmosis, diffusion, active transport
Nutrition: food vacuoles
Reproduction: mostly asexual, binary fission
Regulation of response: eye spots
Growth & Development: cell division
Transport: five “hearts, dorsal and ventral blood vessel, closed system
Excretion: nephridia, “kidney-like” structures found on every segment
Regulation: dorsal “brain, ventral nerve cord
Respiration: breath through their skin
Nutrition: crop (storage), gizzard (grinds), intestine (chemical digestion)
Reproduction: worms are hermaphroditic, exchange sperm and lay eggs
Development: from eggs
Transport: open circulatory system
Excretion: Malpighian tubules
Regulation: hormones, nervous system, pheromones
Respiration: spiracles & tubes called tracheae
Nutrition: insects have a wide variety of mouth parts to eat a variety of foods
Reproduction: sexual (external); parthenogenesis
Incomplete: egg nymph adult
Complete: egg larva pupa adult
Transport: closed circulatory system
Excretion: kidneys/urinary bladder
Regulation: hormones (control metamorphosis), nervous system
Respiration: gills, lungs, skin
Nutrition: larva (herbivores), adults (carnivores)
Reproduction: sexual, external fertilization
Development: incomplete metamorphosis
Transport: closed circulatory system
Regulation: hormones, well developed nervous system (developed senses)
Nutrition: digestive tracts vary according to what the animal eats
Reproduction: sexual with internal fertilization
Monotremes duck billed platypus and spiny anteater lay eggs
Marsupials→partial placental; complete development outside mom’s body
Placental → Most mammals have a well developed placenta (uterus); full development inside mom
Respiration: gas exchange through diffusion
Synthesis: carry out photosynthesis and make sugars and other macromolecules
Classified based on their transport…reproduction…development
Mosses and liverworts
Transport: use osmosis and diffusion; no tubes
Development: moss cycle between a sexual phase with egg and sperm and an asexual phase that makes spores
Transport: vascular tissue:
xylem & phloem (tubes)
Development: alternation of generations; (sporophyte, produces asexual spores; gametophyte, produces egg/sperm)
Means “naked seed”, includes the conifers
(cone-bearing trees: pine, spruce, fir, hemlock)
Transport: xylem and phloem
Respiration: CO2, H2O and O2 move in and out of leaf through stomata
Reproduction: sperm is now inside a pollen grain
Pollination – sperm moves from male cones to female cones via wind
Fertilization – sperm and egg unite on the female cone and produce seeds
Transport: xylem and phloem
Regulation: plant hormones like auxin, cause stems to bend
Reproduction: pollination and fertilization
Pollination occurs through wind and pollinators like bees, hummingbirds and bats
Seeds develop in an ovary that aids seed dispersal.
Seeds have cotyledons (seed leaves)
Ovary can become a fruit or some other structure that aids dispersal
Male birds using elaborate mating displays or rituals to attract females.
Male frogs have thumb pads to hold onto female when mating. Ensures egg and sperm will meet.
Fly orchid looks and smells similar to female wasp. Male “mates” with it and transfers pollen from one flower to the next.
Disease causing organisms
Protein coat (capsid) surrounds core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)
Needs a host cell to reproduce (invades)
Specific for a particular host
Able to mutate
HIV, Flu, smallpox, polio, Rabies
Able to mutate (resistance to antibiotics)
Discovered in early 1900’s
Decades of exposure has produced resistant bacteria
Antibiotics don’t work on them anymore
Role of genetics and the environment
5. Diabetes (environment and genetics)
6. PKU and diet
Malaria caused by the protist, Plasmodium.
Symptoms: fever, chills, headache, nausea
Plasmodium destroying red blood cells
Plasmodium cannot live in blood stream of person with sickle shaped cells
Antigens – foreign protein (bacteria, virus, fungus, transplanted organ)
*first line of attack
Antibodies – proteins your body makes to defend itself against antigens
The Adaptive Immune system kicks in if the Innate (antigen-antibody) response does not work
B cells: make antibodies
T cells:bHelp B cells make antibodies; Kill infected cells
Your body makes the antibodies
Ex: having the disease, getting a vaccination
You get the antibodies from another source
Ex: from mother thru the placenta or mothers milk, from a shot (rabies shot)Types of Immunity
Antibodies remember the disease antigen so it’s ready to destroy next time it enters your body
Given a shot of dead or weakened pathogens
Your body makes antibodies in response to the antigens
You are left with memory cells
What makes up a healthy diet?
What is poor nutrition?
iron or calcium deficiency
Taxis – animal moves toward or away from a stimulus
Ex. Insect moving toward or away from light
Positive light taxis
Something you are born knowing to do
Building a nest
ESTIVATION – dormancy during periods of extreme heat or drought
conserve resources during extreme conditions
Common in frogs
HIBERNATION – dormant (sleep-like state) in winter
Purpose????? Survive winters when there is little available food.
Animal intimidates another
Bird calling, growling, showing teeth
To defend food supply, territory, or young
an animal becomes accustomed to a stimulus through prolonged and regular exposure
Ex: you don’t notice a clock chiming in your house, the refrigerator or heat/air coming on; but you do when you’re at someone else’s house!
Communication in social insects using pheromones.