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Goal 4: Unity and Diversity of Life. 4.01 Classification. Taxonomy: science of classifying living things ARISTOTLE gave us our first system of classifying 2 Kingdoms – Plants and Animals Later…3 Kingdoms – Plants, Animals and Protists. Classification.

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4 01 classification
4.01 Classification

Taxonomy: science of classifying living things

ARISTOTLE gave us our first system of classifying

2 Kingdoms – Plants and Animals

Later…3 Kingdoms – Plants, Animals and Protists


And until recently…there were 5 kingdoms: Plants, Animals, Protists, Fungi and Monera

Today…we group living things into 6 kingdoms…all of the above…except MONERA (the bacteria) have been divided into 2 kingdoms: Eubacteria & Archaebacteria

Why do the kingdoms keep changing?

New technology & new information about living things cause us to have to adjust our groupings

taxons of classification
Taxons of Classification









binomial nomenclature
Binomial Nomenclature

Two name system of classification.

Genus + Species


Homo sapien (humans)

Canisfamiliaris (domesticated dogs)

Felisdomesticus (domesticated cats)

Quercusalba (white oak)

basis of classification
Basis of Classification:
  • Evolutionary phylogeny

(following descendents/ancestors)

  • DNA/biochemical analysis

(the more similar DNA is b/w organisms; the more closely related they are)

  • Embryology

(more similar embryonic stages; more closely related: for example: all vertebrates have a tail & gill slits as embryos)

  • Morphology

(similarities in structural features)

phylogenetic trees
Phylogenetic Trees

Used to show relationships between organisms.

Who evolved first.

Which organisms are either very closely related or distantly related.

phylogenetic trees con t
Phylogenetic Trees con’t

Which phylum is the most closely related to the Chordata?

Which phylum

evolved first?

Between Arthropoda,

Annelida and

Mollusca? Who

evolved first?




biochemical analysis
Biochemical Analysis

Biochemical or DNA similarities help to demonstrate relatedness between organisms.

(cytochrome C is a protein found in the mitochondria)


Similarities during embryological development can demonstrate how two organisms are related.


Similarities in the structure of these frog skulls ( 6 different species) show how closely they are related.

cell types
Cell Types


  • No nucleus
  • No membrane bound organelles
  • Ribosomes
  • Cell membrane
  • Cell wall
  • Small & primitive
  • Circular DNA (one chromosome)
cell types con t
Cell Types con’t


  • Nucleus (nuclear membrane)
  • DNA & chromosomes
  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Ribosomes
  • Cell membrane
  • Large & complex
kingdom eubacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • No nucleus…but does have DNA
  • Unicellular
  • Heterotrophic (feed on other organisms; cause disease
  • E. coli; pneumonia & streptbacterias
kingdom archaebacteria
  • Prokaryotic
  • No nucleus…but does have DNA
  • Unicellular
  • Heterotrophic
  • Some autotrophic (chemosyntheis)
  • Live in HARSH environments: hot springs, thermal vents, no oxygen
kingdom protista




(Absorb nutrients)

No complex organ



Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic


kingdom fungi
Kingdom Fungi




(absorb nutrients)


No complex organ systems

Cell walls





kingdom plantae
Kingdom Plantae
  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Autotrophic (photosynthesis)
  • Sessile/nonmotile
  • Chloroplasts and cell walls
  • Complex organ systems
kingdom animalia
Kingdom Animalia



Heterotophs (ingestion)


Complex organ systems

algae where do they belong
ALGAE: Where do they belong?
  • Eukaryotic
  • Unicellular & multicellular
  • Autotrophic (photosynthesis)
  • Non-motile
  • No true roots, stems, leaves
  • Some classify in PLANT kingdom; some classify in PROTIST kingdom



using a dichotomous key
Using a Dichotomous Key

Can you identify these birds using the dichotomous key?

Bird W: Geospiza

Bird X: Platyspiza

Bird Y: Certhidea

Bird Z: Camarhynchus

4 02 analyze essential life functions of specific representatives
4.02 Analyze essential life functions of specific representatives

Transport: How organisms move food and wastes throughout their bodies.

Excretion: How organisms get rid of their waste and balance their fluids.

Regulation: How organisms control body processes – i.e. hormones and nervous system

Respiration: How organisms exchange gases (O2 and CO2) with the environment

con t

Nutrition: How organisms break down and absorb foods.

Synthesis: How organisms build necessary molecules.

Reproduction: Continuation of the species thru sexual or asexual reproduction.

Growth and Development: getting bigger & maturing

unicellular protists
Unicellular Protists

Examples: Amoeba, Paramecium, Euglena

Transport, Excretion and Respiration: osmosis, diffusion, active transport

Nutrition: food vacuoles

Reproduction: mostly asexual, binary fission

Regulation of response: eye spots

Growth & Development: cell division

annelid worms1
Annelid Worms

Transport: five “hearts, dorsal and ventral blood vessel, closed system

Excretion: nephridia, “kidney-like” structures found on every segment

Regulation: dorsal “brain, ventral nerve cord

Respiration: breath through their skin

worms con t
Worms con’t

Nutrition: crop (storage), gizzard (grinds), intestine (chemical digestion)

Reproduction: worms are hermaphroditic, exchange sperm and lay eggs

Development: from eggs


Transport: open circulatory system

Excretion: Malpighian tubules

Regulation: hormones, nervous system, pheromones

Respiration: spiracles & tubes called tracheae

Nutrition: insects have a wide variety of mouth parts to eat a variety of foods

insects con t
Insects con’t

Reproduction: sexual (external); parthenogenesis

Development: metamorphosis

Incomplete: egg  nymph  adult

Complete: egg  larva  pupa  adult


Transport: closed circulatory system

Excretion: kidneys/urinary bladder

Regulation: hormones (control metamorphosis), nervous system

Respiration: gills, lungs, skin

Nutrition: larva (herbivores), adults (carnivores)

amphibians con t
Amphibians con’t

Reproduction: sexual, external fertilization

Development: incomplete metamorphosis

Egg  larva 



Transport: closed circulatory system

Excretion: kidneys

Regulation: hormones, well developed nervous system (developed senses)

Respiration: lungs

Nutrition: digestive tracts vary according to what the animal eats

mammalia con t
Mammalia con’t

Reproduction: sexual with internal fertilization


Monotremes duck billed platypus and spiny anteater lay eggs

Marsupials→partial placental; complete development outside mom’s body

Placental → Most mammals have a well developed placenta (uterus); full development inside mom


Respiration: gas exchange through diffusion

Synthesis: carry out photosynthesis and make sugars and other macromolecules

Classified based on their transport…reproduction…development

non vascular plants1
Non Vascular Plants

Mosses and liverworts

Transport: use osmosis and diffusion; no tubes

Reproduction: spores

Development: moss cycle between a sexual phase with egg and sperm and an asexual phase that makes spores

non seed vascular plants
Non-Seed Vascular Plants


Transport: vascular tissue:

xylem & phloem (tubes)

Reproduction: spores

Development: alternation of generations; (sporophyte, produces asexual spores; gametophyte, produces egg/sperm)


Means “naked seed”, includes the conifers

(cone-bearing trees: pine, spruce, fir, hemlock)

Transport: xylem and phloem

Respiration: CO2, H2O and O2 move in and out of leaf through stomata

Synthesis: photosynthesis


Reproduction: sperm is now inside a pollen grain

Pollination – sperm moves from male cones to female cones via wind

Fertilization – sperm and egg unite on the female cone and produce seeds


Flowering plants

Transport: xylem and phloem

Regulation: plant hormones like auxin, cause stems to bend

Respiration: stomata

Synthesis: photosynthesis

Reproduction: pollination and fertilization


Pollination occurs through wind and pollinators like bees, hummingbirds and bats

Seeds develop in an ovary that aids seed dispersal.

Seeds have cotyledons (seed leaves)

Ovary can become a fruit or some other structure that aids dispersal

feeding adaptations
Mosquitoes mouth is adapted to suck blood

Snakes jaws unhinge to take in whole prey

Feeding Adaptations
feeding adaptations1
Feeding Adaptations
  • Intestinal folds (villi) found in many types of animals
  • Mammals, worms, insects, amphibians
  • Increase surface area to increase efficiency of digestion
reproductive adaptations
Reproductive Adaptations

Male birds using elaborate mating displays or rituals to attract females.

reproductive adaptations1
Reproductive Adaptations

Male frogs have thumb pads to hold onto female when mating. Ensures egg and sperm will meet.

reproductive adaptations2
Reproductive Adaptations
  • Asexual cell division does not allow for genetic variety
  • However…it does eliminate the need to find a mate!
reproductive adaptations3
Reproductive Adaptations
  • Earthworms are hermaphrodites…
  • Each worm produces egg & sperm
  • Still exchange sperm with another worm (for genetic variety)
  • However…can still produce offspring if they can’t find a mate
developmental adaptations
Developmental Adaptations
  • Animals that go through complete metamorphosis such as insects and frogs have an adaptive advantage in feeding
  • The larvae form tends to be herbivorous, while the adult is carnivorous
other adaptations
Other Adaptations
  • Flowers develop certain colors, scents, shapes to attract certain pollinators
  • This is an example of coevolution
co evolution

Fly orchid looks and smells similar to female wasp. Male “mates” with it and transfers pollen from one flower to the next.

adaptations to life on land plants
Adaptations to Life on LandPlants
  • Vascular Tissue – xylem and phloem – transport materials and support
  • Cuticle – waxy covering to prevent dehydration
  • Pollen – allows fertilization without water
  • Tropisms – Geotropism: growth toward gravity (roots); Phototropism: growth toward light (leaves)
adaptations to life on land animals
Adaptations to Life on LandAnimals
  • Gills become lungs
  • Moist skin becomes thick with scales or other coverings – prevent dehydration
  • Internal fertilization
  • Amniotic egg
  • Legs move under the animal to allow easier movement

Disease causing organisms


Protein coat (capsid) surrounds core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA)

Needs a host cell to reproduce (invades)

Specific for a particular host

Able to mutate

HIV, Flu, smallpox, polio, Rabies

Don’t grow…develop…

need energy…respond


Able to mutate (resistance to antibiotics)




MRSA (staph)

protecting ourselves
Protecting Ourselves

Against Viruses

Against Bacteria


Discovered in early 1900’s

Kill bacteria

Decades of exposure has produced resistant bacteria

Antibiotics don’t work on them anymore


  • Vaccinations:
  • Weakened form of virus injected in body to stimulate immune response to make antibodies against virus
  • So next time you get virus; already have antibodies to destroy virus
  • However, so many flu & cold viruses…and they mutate so often…can’t get vaccinated against all
4 04 health and disease
4.04 Health and Disease

Role of genetics and the environment

  • Sickle cell anemia and malaria (see next slide)
  • Lung/mouth cancer and tobacco use
  • Stomach/colon cancer and diet
  • Skin cancer sun exposure
  • Sun exposure and vitamin D and folic acid

5. Diabetes (environment and genetics)

6. PKU and diet

parasites plasmodium
Parasites - Plasmodium

Malaria caused by the protist, Plasmodium.

Vector: Mosquito

Symptoms: fever, chills, headache, nausea


  • Prevention
  • Antimalarial drugs
  • No vaccine

Plasmodium destroying red blood cells

Plasmodium cannot live in blood stream of person with sickle shaped cells

  • Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar. Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both
  • Diabetes can be controlled or even prevented by diet (watch sugar/carb intake) & exercise (which burns carbs)
pku phenylketonuria
PKU (Phenylketonuria)
  • Inability to break down the amino acid: phenylalanine
  • Excess phenylalanine can cause brain damage
  • Babies that test positive for PKU on put on diets that reduce intake of phenylalanine
immune system
Immune System
  • Protects you against foreign invaders
  • First line of defense: your skin

Antigens – foreign protein (bacteria, virus, fungus, transplanted organ)

*first line of attack

Antibodies – proteins your body makes to defend itself against antigens

immune system1
Immune System

The Adaptive Immune system kicks in if the Innate (antigen-antibody) response does not work

B cells: make antibodies

T cells:bHelp B cells make antibodies; Kill infected cells

types of immunity

Your body makes the antibodies

Ex: having the disease, getting a vaccination


You get the antibodies from another source

Ex: from mother thru the placenta or mothers milk, from a shot (rabies shot)

Types of Immunity

Antibodies remember the disease antigen so it’s ready to destroy next time it enters your body


Given a shot of dead or weakened pathogens

Your body makes antibodies in response to the antigens

You are left with memory cells


What makes up a healthy diet?

What is poor nutrition?



iron or calcium deficiency

vitamin deficiency

toxins environmental
Toxins - environmental

Lead -

  • Heavy metal, builds up over time
  • Exposure more serious in children
  • Symptoms: reduced IQ, slowed body growth, hearing problems, behavior or attention problems, failure at school, kidney damage
  • Sources: paint, plumbing, toys, dinnerware
toxins environmental1
Toxins - Environmental

Mercury –

  • Heavy metal, builds up over time
  • Sources: glass thermometers, electrical switches, fluorescent light bulbs, fish
  • Symptoms: numbness or pain in certain parts of your skin, uncontrollable shake or tremor, inability to walk well, blindness and double vision, memory problems, seizures and death (with large exposures)
  • Very dangerous for fetuses dev. brain
innate behavior
  • Inherited behavior
  • Instincts & reflexes
  • Behavior an animal is born with
  • EX: suckling; building nests, migrating, defending territory
innate behavior1
Innate Behavior

Taxis – animal moves toward or away from a stimulus

Ex. Insect moving toward or away from light

Positive light taxis

innate behavior2
Innate Behavior



Something you are born knowing to do

Building a nest


  • Automatic response to a stimulus
  • Pulling your hand away from heat
  • Jumping at a loud noise
innate behavior3
Innate Behavior
  • Moving to new location periodically (find food, mating partners)
  • Based on seasons, rain
innate behavior4
Innate Behavior

ESTIVATION – dormancy during periods of extreme heat or drought


conserve resources during extreme conditions

Common in frogs

innate behavior5
Innate Behavior

HIBERNATION – dormant (sleep-like state) in winter

Purpose????? Survive winters when there is little available food.

innate behavior6
Innate Behavior


Animal intimidates another

Bird calling, growling, showing teeth

To defend food supply, territory, or young

innate behavior7
Innate Behavior
  • Defending an area from another organism
  • Physical space used by an organism for feeding, breeding, or raising young
  • Reduces conflicts, controls population growth, provides efficient use of resources
innate behavior8
Innate Behavior
  • PHEROMONES: chemicals that communicate information in other animals
  • Ants, bees use them to communicate
  • Urine contains pheromones
  • Often used to mark territory
innate behavior9
Innate Behavior
  • Rituals carried out to attract mates
  • Flashy dances, gestures, posturing, light signals
  • Specific to each species
  • Helps organisms find mates of their species
circadian rhythm
Circadian Rhythm
  • Daily rhythm
  • Sleeping
  • eating
learned behavior
Learned Behavior
  • Acquired behavior
  • Behavior changes through practice
  • Trial & error
  • Allows for adaptation to change; therefore important in survival
learned behavior1
Learned Behavior
  • Practice makes perfect
  • Learn to exhibit a behavior based on a reward
learned behavior2
Learned Behavior

an animal becomes accustomed to a stimulus through prolonged and regular exposure

Ex: you don’t notice a clock chiming in your house, the refrigerator or heat/air coming on; but you do when you’re at someone else’s house!

learned behavior3
Learned Behavior
  • Learning based on early experience
  • Bonding shortly after birth
  • Once occurred, cannot be changed
  • Keeps young animals close to mother who protects and feeds them
learned behavior4
Learned Behavior
  • Learning by association
  • Dogs or cats come to their food bowl when they hear the can opener
  • Students change class when they hear bell
social behavior
Social Behavior

Communication in social insects using pheromones.

social behavior1
Social Behavior
  • “pecking order”
  • In social groups, there is a state of “seniority”
  • Alpha males/females