Linguistics for ELTPhonetics The Vowel Sounds
Production of Vowel sounds • Vowel sounds are produced by passing air through different shapes of the mouth, • with different positions of the tongue and the lips, and occurring in different parts of the oral cavity • With the air stream relatively unobstructed, except at the glottis.
Classification of vowels • With reference to the production of the vowels • Lips can form many shapes – considered 3 • - rounded (as in /u/) • - spread (/i/) • - neutral (ə) • - Open# (/a/)
Tongue Position • The tongue moves to different positions to produce the different vowels. • High /i/ /u/ - the tongue touches the roof of the mouth • mid /e/ /o/ - tongue rests mid way bet roof and low position • Low /a/ /æ/ - tongue at its lowest position, touching the lower teeth smtimes
Cardinal vowels • Vowels which are familiar and most common with European speakers – and almost all languages have these sounds • Quadrilateral of vowels – position of production - draw • /i/, /e/, /ε/, /a/ • /u/, /o/, /c/, /a/
Short vowels • /I/ - Bit, Pit, fish • /e/ - bet, men, yes • /æ/- man, gas • /Λ/ but, some, rush • /inverted a/ pot, gone, cross • /u/ pull, put, push