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  1. Beyond the teaching and learning toolkit -putting evidence to workInspiring Leadership ConferenceBirmingham 12th June 2014Professor Rob Coe and Kevan CollinsKevan.collins@eefoundation.org.uk www.educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk

  2. The next 60 minutes… • The case for an evidence led approach • Putting evidence to work • lessons from lesson observation • lessons from transition studies • An invitation to join the ‘quiet revolution’

  3. Teaching and Learning Toolkit The Toolkit is an accessible, teacher-friendly summary of educational research. ‘Which?’ for education • Practice focused: tries to give schools the information they need to make informed decisions and narrow the gap. • Based on meta-analyses conducted by Durham University.

  4. Using the Toolkit Use the evidence as a starting point for discussion. Dig deeper into what the evidence actually says Understand the ‘active ingredients’ of implementation

  5. The Toolkit is a starting point for making decisions

  6. Do teachers need to know about research?Lessons from Lesson Observation

  7. Knowledge of research Put these in order of effectiveness: • A one-to-one numeracy intervention (two 15-minute sessions per week, delivered by teaching assistants) for Year 2-6 pupils who are struggling with numeracy (outcome: maths) • Nine weekly one-hour sessions where Y7 pupils below L4 read and discuss an age-appropriate book, with tools and resources to encourage reading for pleasure (outcome: reading) • A four-week summer school programme (between Y6 & 7) for pupils who had been predicted to achieve KS2 below Level 4b in English, focussed on poetry and writing (outcome: writing). • Y6 & 7 teachers trained to deliver a programme to help low attaining pupils plan, monitor and evaluate their writing using memorable experiences, eg trips and visitors (outcome: writing).

  8. Improving Teaching • Teacher quality is what matters • We need to focus on teacher learning • Teachers learn just like other people • Be clear what you want them to learn • Get good information about where they are at • Give good feedback

  9. Sept 2013: ResearchEd

  10. Do We Know a Successful Teacher When We See One? • Filmed lessons (or short clips) of effective (value-added) and ineffective teachers shown to • School Principals and Vice-Principals • Teachers • Public • Some agreement among raters, but unable to identify effective teaching • No difference between education experts and others • Training in CLASS did help a bit Strong et al 2011 J TchrEdn

  11. Reliability Percentages based on simulations

  12. Validity Percentages based on simulations

  13. How can something that feels so right be so wrong?cem.org/blog

  14. Obvious – but not trueWhy do we believe we can spot good teaching? • We absolutely know what we like • Strong emotional response to particular behaviours/styles is hard to over-rule • We focus on observable proxies for learning • Learning is invisible • Preferences for particular pedagogies are widely shared, but evidence/understanding of their effectiveness is limited • We assume that if you can do it you can spot it • We don’t believe observation can miss so much

  15. Poor Proxies for Learning • Students are busy: lots of work is done (especially written work) • Students are engaged, interested, motivated • Students are getting attention: feedback, explanations • Classroom is ordered, calm, under control • Curriculum has been ‘covered’ (ie presented to students in some form) • (At least some) students have supplied correct answers (whether or not they really understood them or could reproduce them independently)

  16. Evidence based advice Judgements from lesson observation may be used for low-stakes interpretations (eg to advise on areas for improvement) if at least two observers independently observe a total of at least six lessons, provided those observers have been trained and quality assured by a rigorous process (2-3 days training & exam). High-stakes inference (eg Ofsted grading, competence) should not be based on lesson observation alone, no matter how it is done.

  17. What does ‘good teaching’ look like?

  18. Improving Teaching • Teacher quality is what matters • We need to focus on teacher learning • Teachers learn just like other people • Be clear what you want them to learn • Get good information about where they are at • Give good feedback

  19. Danielson Frameworkhttp://danielsongroup.org/framework/ • Planning and preparation • Demonstrating Knowledge of Content and Pedagogy • Demonstrating Knowledge of Students • Setting Instructional Outcomes • Demonstrating Knowledge of Resources • Designing Coherent Instruction • Designing Student Assessments • Classroom environment • Creating an Environment of Respect and Rapport • Establishing a Culture for Learning • Managing Classroom Procedures • Managing Student Behavior • Organizing Physical Space • Instruction • Communicating with Students • Using Questioning and Discussion Techniques • Engaging Students in Learning • Using Assessment in Instruction • Demonstrating Flexibility and Responsiveness • Professional responsibilities • Reflecting on Teaching • Maintaining Accurate Records • Communicating with Families • Participating in the Professional Community • Growing and Developing Professionally • Showing Professionalism

  20. Evidence-based standards for effective teaching? • Evidence about relationships between teacher skills, knowledge & behaviours and ‘effectiveness’ • Evidence about what can be changed (and how) • Based on ‘best’ theories of • Pupil learning • Pedagogy & teaching effectiveness • Behaviour change (individual, institutional, systemic) • Most important: does focusing on these things lead to improvement?

  21. Improving Teaching • Teacher quality is what matters • We need to focus on teacher learning • Teachers learn just like other people • Be clear what you want them to learn • Get good information about where they are at • Give good feedback

  22. Why monitor teaching quality? • Strong evidence of (potential) benefit from • Performance feedback(Coe, 2002) • Target setting (Locke & Latham, 2006) • Intelligent accountability (Wiliam 2010) • Individual teachers matter most • Everyone can improve • Teachers stop improving after 3-5 years • Judging real quality/effectiveness is very hard • Multidimensional • Not easily visible • Confounded

  23. Monitoring the quality of teaching • Progress in assessments • Quality of assessment matters (cem.org/blog) • Regular, high quality assessment across curriculum (InCAS, INSIGHT) • Classroom observation • Much harder than you think! (cem.org/blog) • Multiple observations/ers, trained and QA’d • Student ratings • Extremely valuable, if done properly (http://www.cem.org/latest/student-evaluation-of-teaching-can-it-raise-attainment-in-secondary-schools) • Other • Parent ratings feedback • Student work scrutiny • Colleague perceptions (360) • Self assessment • Pedagogical content knowledge

  24. Lessons from transition studies

  25. The level 4 jeopardy…

  26. Focusing on transition In 2012 with government support the EEF funded 24 transition studies involving 1:10 secondary schools and many of their partner primaries and just under 17,000 pupils. We asked schools to bring the best of their literacy transition work for evaluation and testing Funded programmes included commercial products, school grown solutions, in and out of school activities

  27. 7 Lessons from transition studies 1.The educational chances of pupils who begin secondary school without having achieved Level 4 in literacy are very poor. In 2013, 72,000 children began secondary school without a Level 4 in reading. If this cohort follows previous trends, approximately 1 in 10 will achieve 5A*-C, including English and Maths at GCSE. 2. Due to the size of the gap, helping struggling readers catch-up with their peers in Year 6 is very challenging. It is highly unlikely that any single approach will be sufficient to close it. 3.Supporting struggling readers is likely to require a concerted effort across the curriculum, and a combination of approaches.

  28. 7 Lessons from transition studies 4. When viewed in isolation some approaches seem to be more promising than others. On average, reading comprehension approaches appear to be more effective than phonics or oral language approaches for low attaining older readers. It may be that children who have not succeeded using phonics previously benefit from approaches which place a greater emphasis on meaning and context. 5.The effectiveness of any approach to reading catch-up is related to the pupil’s stage of reading development, so it is important that staff have the skill and training in diagnostic assessment, as well as in delivering any particular intervention.

  29. 7 Lessons from transition studies 6. Summer schools can improve reading ability but their effectiveness will be limited by the quality of teaching which takes place. In addition, it is likely that other approaches delivered in school will be more cost-effective. 7. Though some progress is possible, tackling reading catch-up at the transition is extremely difficult. The findings of this summary underline the importance of effective early intervention in Key Stage 1 and the beginning of Key Stage

  30. Conclusions The new focus on evidence will support informed professional debate – it’s not a panacea Implementation is all and putting evidence to work requires informed and engaged leadership Enduring question - why is the education sector so weak at spreading and sharing lessons from disciplined and informed innovation? Taking part in EEF research: Kevan.collins@eefoundation.org.uk