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Inplo gems introducing. DIAMOND NET WORK BUSINESS. WHAT IS DIAMOND ?. Diamonds Education: What Is A Diamond ?

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what is diamond

Diamonds Education: What Is A Diamond?

The word Diamond comes from the Greek word Adamas, which means indestructible. It is the only gem known to man that is made of a single element, Carbon, besides graphite. Diamond is completely made of Carbon atoms (Chemical Composition - C) crystallized in a cubic (isometric) arrangement.

How and where are diamonds formed?

Diamonds form between 120-200 kilometers or 75-120 miles below the earth's surface. According to geologists the first delivery of diamonds was somewhere around 2.5 billion years ago and the most recent was 45 million years ago. According to science, the carbon that makes diamonds comes from the melting of pre-existing rocks in the Earth's upper mantle. There is an abundance of carbon atoms in the mantle.

Temperature changes in the upper mantle forces the carbon atoms to go deeper where it melts and finally becomes new rock, when the temperature reduces. If other conditions like pressure and chemistry are right then the carbon atoms in the melting crystal rock bond to build diamond crystals.

There is no guarantee that these carbon atoms will turn into diamonds. If the temperature rises or the pressure drops then the diamond crystals may melt partially or totally dissolve. Even if they do form, it takes thousands of years for those diamonds to come anywhere near the surface.

how the diamond get to the surface

Diamonds ascend to the Earth's surface in rare molten rock, or magma that originates at great depths. Carrying diamonds and other samples from Earth's mantle, this magma rises and erupts in small but violent volcanoes. Just beneath such volcanoes is a carrot-shaped "pipe" filled with volcanic rock, mantle fragments, and some embedded diamonds. The rock is called kimberlite after the city of Kimberley, South Africa, where the pipes were first discovered in the 1870s. Another rock that provides diamonds is lamproite.

The volcano that carries diamond to the surface emanates from deep cracks and fissures called dikes. It develops its carrot shape near the surface, when gases separate from the magma, perhaps accompanied by the boiling of ground water, and a violent supersonic eruption follows. The volcanic cone formed above the kimberlite pipe is very small in comparison with volcanoes like Mount St. Helens, but the magma originates at depths at least 3 times as great. These deep roots enable kimberlite to tap the source of diamonds. Magmas are the elevators that bring diamonds to Earth's surface.

The search for diamonds has determined that most are derived from kimberlite pipes in the oldest, nuclear portions of the continents, where the basement rocks are older than 1.5 billion years. The oldest parts of continents are called cratons, and can be divided into two terranes: Archean-age archons, which are older than 2,500 million years, and Proterozoic-age protons, which are 1,600 -- 2,500 million years old. The distribution of these terranes is shown on the map.

The complex volcanic magmas that solidify into kimberlite and lamproite are not the source of diamonds, only the elevators that bring them with other minerals and mantle rocks to Earth's surface. Although rising from much greater depths than other magmas, these pipes and volcanic cones are relatively small and rare, but they erupt in extraordinary supersonic explosions.

how do diamond get to surface


Kimberlite and lamproite are similar mixtures of rock material. Their important components include fragments of rock from Earth's mantle, large crystals, and the crystallized magma that glues the mixture together. The magmas are very rich in magnesium and volatile compounds such as water and carbon dioxide. As the volatiles dissolved in the magma change to gas near Earth's surface, explosive eruptions create the characteristic carrot- or bowl-shaped pipes.


Kimberlite magma rises through Earth's crust in networks of cracks or dikes. The pipes only form near Earth's surface. This cross-section of a kimberlite pipe shows the carrot-shaped profile produced by explosive eruption. The root zone starts in fissures, where gases are released from the rising magma and drive the eruption; they blow out the fragment-laden kimberlite to form the volcano's tuff ring and fill the pipe.


These drawings illustrate the formation and filling of the typical champagne-glass shape of a lamproite pipe. The initial stage of the eruption, powered by gases either from the lamproite magma or from boiling ground water, corrodes the hosting rock to form the champagne-glass shape (top). The eruption then produces particles of ash, lapilli, and pumice that partially fill the crater and form a tuff ring (middle). Finally, the crater fills with a lava pond from the degassed lamproite magma (bottom).



Today diamonds are mined in about 25 countries, on every continent but Europe and Antarctica. However, only a few diamond deposits were known until the 20th century, when scientific understanding and technology extended diamond exploration and mining around the globe. For 1,000 years, starting in roughly the 4th century BC, India was the only source of diamonds. In 1725, important sources were discovered in Brazil, and in the 1870s major finds in South Africa marked a dramatic increase in the diamond supply. Additional major producers now include several African countries, Siberian Russia, and Australia.


The map above shows both the major deposits and the ancient bedrock, both the 2,500-million-year-old archons and less productive 1,600 to 2,500-million-year-old protons, that contain the diamond pipes. The diamonds in secondary deposits have been moved by erosion away from the pipes.


Diamond Deposits

Geologic processes create two basic types of diamond deposits, referred to as primary and secondary sources. Primary sources are the kimberlite and lamproite pipes that raise diamonds from Earth's mantle, where they originate. Secondary sources, created by erosion, include such deposits as surface scatterings around a pipe, concentrations in river channels, and fluxes from rivers moved by wave action along ocean coasts, past and present. Mining of these deposits depends upon sufficient concentration and quality of diamonds.

The diagram here shows the trail of diamonds left by geological processes.

The primary deposits, or diamond pipes, are the vertical portion. The flared top of the pipes can yield substantial quantities of diamonds, but following the narrowing pipe downward eventually becomes unprofitable. Note how erosion of the landscape moves surface minerals, including the diamonds, from the pipes down hills, streams, and rivers to their ultimate destination, the ocean.

Because diamonds are dense they concentrate at the bottom zones of moving sand and gravel. These secondary deposits are eluvial (above a pipe), colluvial (adjacent to a pipe), alluvial (stream and river transported) and marine (along beaches that can wind up onshore or offshore with changing sea level). Secondary deposits may be found far from current means of transport, in the fossilized channels of now-vanished rivers or under fossil beaches.



The diamond octahedron has the shape that we describe as a diamond. While it is the most common shape for a diamond crystal, cubes, dodecahedra, and combinations of these three shapes are common. All are highly symmetrical, with equal dimensions in three perpendicular directions, and all are manifestations of the cubic crystal system to which the mineral diamond belongs.


Diamond Cut

Learn About Diamond Cut

Diamond cut refers to the angles and proportions of a diamond. Based on scientific formulas, a well-cut diamond will internally reflect light from one mirror-like facet to another and disperse and reflect it through the top of the stone. This results in a display of brilliance and fire. Well-cut diamonds are therefore placed higher on the Diamond Quality Pyramid than deep or shallow-cut diamonds and a well-cut diamond is more valuable.

The cut of a diamond is what determines how the light that enters the diamond is reflected and therefore how much fire and brilliance the diamond will exude. A diamond that is cut too shallow with respect to its width will allow too much light to pass straight through the diamond, leaving little light to reflect. Such a diamond will appear dull and lacking in brilliance. Alternatively, a diamond that is cut too deeply will allow light to escape from the sides of the diamond and also appearing dull.

Fine or Well Cut Diamonds

When a diamond is cut to proper proportions, light is reflected from one facet to another and then dispersed through the top of the stone. Within the Well Cut standards are the sub categories of Ideal,


Excellent, and Very Good.

Shallow Cut Diamonds

When the cut of a diamond is too shallow, light escapes through the pavilion before it can be reflected.

Deep Cut Diamond

When the cut of a diamond is too deep, some light escapes through


Why Diamond Cut is Important

Did you know that if the diamond is poorly cut, the colour and clarity can not make up for it? The cut of a diamond is what makes a rough diamond sparkle and shine. If a diamond is poorly cut, the light that enters the diamond from above will leak out of the sides and bottom of the stone, and the diamond will not have the optimum amount of sparkle or fire—regardless of its colour or clarity.

Diamond cut is perhaps the most important of the four Cs, so it is important to understand how this quality affects the properties and values of a diamond. When a diamond is well-cut, light enters through the table and travels to the pavilion where it reflects from one side to the other before reflecting back out of the diamond through the table and to the observer's eye. This light is the brilliance and it is this flashing, fiery effect that makes diamonds so attractive.

It's easy to see that the deep-cut diamond shown above will have a higher carat weight, but it is clearly the less desirable diamond. Many jewellers will not discuss cut proportions unless the customer specifically asks; a stone rich in carat weight but poorly proportioned can be "discounted" giving the buyer a false impression of a great deal.

In a poorly cut diamond, the light that enters through the table reaches the facets and then 'leaks' out from the sides or bottom of the diamond rather than reflecting back to the eye. Less light reflected back to the eye means less brilliance.

The way a diamond is cut, its width, depth, roundness, size and position of the facets determine the brilliance of the stone. Even if the color and clarity are perfect, if the diamond is not cut to good proportions, it will be dull and less impressive to the eye.

Don't confuse diamond "cut" with "shape." Diamond shape refers to the general outward appearance of the diamond, such as round, emerald, or pear.


Ideal Cut Diamonds

You may have heard of a term called "Ideal Cut". This term refers to the attempt to cut a round diamond into the best proportions to achieve maximum brilliance, fire and scintillation.

In order to cut a stone to ideal proportions, much of the rough diamond is sacrificed, leaving a stone with a smaller carat weight. Diamond cutters sometimes sacrifice ideal proportions to end up with a larger, more profitable stone. Industry standard valuation of diamonds (Rapaport) does not take into account a diamond's proportions, thus a larger diamond with fair proportions will be worth more than the smaller diamond with good proportions to a diamond cutter (colour and clarity being equal). Consequently, ideal cut stones are rarer and harder for wholesalers and jewellers to find and they are priced accordingly.

The diamond grading laboratories have been researching cut proportions for many years but there is still no industry agreement on what constitutes the best cut parameters for round brilliant diamonds.

It is hard for most diamond shoppers to understand diamond cut and what is "Ideal". There are straightforward standards for colour and clarity grading diamonds, but the diamond industry and diamond grading laboratories do not have a set standard when it comes to cut grading, proportions and what constitutes an "Ideal" cut diamond.

The term "Ideal" Cut Diamond or "American Ideal" Cut is a widely and quite oftenly misused marketing term used by Jewellers and Diamond Dealers to describe a cutting style based on proportions rather than an actual "Ideal" grade by a laboratory.

The American Gem Society - AGS adapted proportional ranges for their "Ideal" (zero, 0, best) cut grade, which was based on Marcel Tolkowsky's published thesis entitled, "Diamond Design: A Study of the Reflection and Refraction of Light in Diamond", a theoretical work describing the best proportions of a round brilliant diamond which would provide a balanced return of light (brilliance) and dispersion. These proportion ranges have been adapted and chnaged over the years.

Because all diamond grading laboratories use different names for their cut grades and a different set of parameters for their top cut grades, usually Excellent, Ideal or AGS0, the best way to compare a diamonds cut grade is by the individual proportions listed on the diamond certificate - Table%, Depth%, Crown Height, Crown Angle, Pavillion Depth, Pavillion Angle, Girdle & Culet.

The depth and table measurements, which are used to determine how good the cut is, are given in percentages of the girdle (the widest part of the diamond). So, if a diamond's girdle measures 10 millimeters, the table measures 5.6 mm, and the total depth measurement is 6.25 mm, it would have a table of 56% and a depth of 62.5%. What percentages will yield an ideal cut vary from shape to shape. The tables below gives percentage ranges of a good cut for different shaped diamonds.


Diamond Cut Paramaters

In a round cut diamond, measurements are generally listed as maximum diameter, minimum diameter and total depth. The average of the first two measurements is the real "size" of a diamond. Deeper diamonds will usually have a slightly smaller diameter than diamonds that are spready cut stones, regardless of the diamond shape. In fancy cut diamonds such as an emerald or marquise cut, the measurements are generally listed as length, width, and depth. By dividing the length by the width we can calculate the "Length/Width" ratio for a fancy shape diamond. Different cutting styles have different preferred ranges, but this ratio is primarily a matter of taste.


Depth %

This number indicates how "deep" a diamond has been cut. For round diamonds the depth should not usually exceed 64% unless cost is a major factor. Diamonds with smaller depth numbers tend to have a larger diameter (see measurements above). For that reason two diamonds of the same carat weight may appear to be different sizes to the naked eye depending on how deeply they've been cut. Depth Percentage is one of most important aspects in determining the final "beauty" of a diamond.

Table %

This number indicates the size of the large flat facet located at the top center of the diamond. If the table facet on a diamond is very large, it may be a sign of a diamond that was cut in order to maintain maximum weight instead of maximum sparkle. Table Percentage is one of most important aspects in determining the final "beauty" of a diamond.


This characteristic refers to the finishing or final polishing of the facets, or flat surfaces.The polish of a diamond is generally defined as either Poor, Fair, Good, Very Good, or Excellent. When purchasing a diamond, select one with a polishing grade of Good or above. Many people wrongly believe that "Very Good" or "Excellent" polish ratings will make a diamond visibly more brilliant or dispersive. The diamond cutter carefully polishes every facet on the diamond to shine and be free from polishing imperfections. Polish is a minor aspect in determining the final beauty & value of a diamond.


Symmetry refers to how well the diamonds facets are aligned and "pointed". GIA defines symmetry as "the exactness of shape and placement of facets". Diamonds with a symmetry rating of "Poor" or "Fair" often times suffer from external imbalances such as an off-center or tilted table, off-center culet, misshapen facets, or wavy girdle. Diamonds with ratings of "Good" or better are most preferred. Symmetry ratings are more important than polish, but not nearly as important as depth and table. The symmetry of a diamond is generally defined as either Poor, Fair, Good, Very Good, or Excellent. When purchasing a diamond, select one with a symmetry grade of Good or above.



The girdle is the outer edge of a diamond. It usually has a frosted appearance. Many diamonds are also finished with a fully polished or even a faceted girdle. This characteristic does not affect the value of a diamond and is often more a reflection the diamond cutter's preference. The girdle is rated in terms of thickness. Girdle size is generally defined as either Extremely Thin, Very Thin, Thin, Medium, Slightly Thick, Thick, Very Thick, or Extremely Thick. The girdle can also be described as a range of these terms such as Thin to Thick. When purchasing a diamond, select one with a girdle that is neither Extremely Thin nor Extremely Thick.


The culet is the point at the bottom of the diamond. Most diamonds today do not have a culet (meaning all the facets come to a sharp point). Culet sizes from none to very small are most preferred, since larger culets can leak light out the bottom of the diamond. The culet is generally graded as None or Pointed, Very Small, Small, Medium, Slightly Large, Large, Very Large, and Extremely Large. Smaller is more desirable


A diamond's ability to reflect light determines its display of fire and brilliance. Diamonds are usually cut with 58 facets, or separate flat surfaces. These facets follow a mathematical formula and are placed at precise angles in relation to each other. This relationship is designed to maximize the amount of light reflected through the diamond and to increase


Diamond Cut Grade

The overall cut grade of a diamond is determined by taking into account all of the factors described above and plotting the results into a table. The lowest score becomes the overall cut grade of the diamond. When classifying a diamond with an overall finish grade - the lowest assigned grade for any individual characteristic is always used. For example: If the table percentage falls within Ideal yet the depth percentage is in the Very Good range, the diamond is classified as Very Good.

Gemologists agree that the best cut diamonds are those that follow a set of formulae calculated to maximize brilliance. These formulae can be seen in a diamond's proportions, most importantly how the depth compares to the diameter, and how the diameter of the table compares to the diameter of the diamond.

However, the variance in the proportions between an Ideal Cut and a Poor Cut can be difficult to distinguish by an untrained eye. Because cut is so important, several grading methods have been developed to help consumers determine the cut, known as the finish grade, of a particular diamond. In general, these grades are:


Ideal Excellent Very Good Good Fair Poor

Selecting the grade of cut is really a matter of preference. To make the best selection, you need to understand the various diamond finish grades. Please note that the descriptions below are general guidelines for the finish grade of a diamond's cut.

Ideal Cut Diamonds

The Ideal cut diamond is designed to maximize brilliance, and with the typically smaller table size these diamonds have the added benefit of creating a great deal of dispersion or 'fire' as well. Ideal quality diamonds are truly for the person who enjoys knowing that they have one of the finest quality diamonds that money can buy. The Ideal cut category applies only to round brilliant cut diamonds.

Excellent Cut Diamonds

In the case of round diamonds, many Excellent Cut diamonds have cuts that are the equal of any Ideal Cut diamond, though they often can be purchased at slightly lower prices than Ideal Cuts. Excellent cut diamonds are intended to provide maximum brilliance and fire. Like the Ideal Cut, these are also for the person who enjoys knowing that he has one of the finest diamonds that money can buy.

Very Good Cut Diamonds

Very good cut diamonds reflect most of the light that enters them, dispersing a good deal of brilliance. With these diamonds, the diamond cutters have chosen to stray slightly from the preferred diamond proportions in order to create a larger diamond. The result is that these diamonds fall slightly outside of some proportions for table size or girdle width, however, in many cases most of the parameters of diamonds in this range will overlap with certain parameters of diamonds in the Ideal or Excellent cut ranges. Generally, the price of these diamonds in slightly below that of Excellent cut diamonds.

Good Cut Diamonds

Good cut diamonds are diamonds that reflect most of the light that enters them. Their proportions fall outside of the preferred range because the diamond cutter has chosen to create the largest possible diamond from the original rough crystal, rather than cutting extra weight off to create a smaller excellent cut quality diamond. Diamonds in this range offer excellent value for people who want to stay in a budget without sacrificing the quality or beauty of the diamond.

Fair & Poor Cut Diamonds

A diamond graded as fair or poor cut reflects only a small proportion of the light that enters it. Typically these diamonds have been cut to maximize the carat weight over most other considerations.


The proportions are not the same for every diamond shape. Many of the diamond shapes require their own guidelines in order to achieve maximum beauty & brilliance. Due to the mathematical differences specific to each diamond shape, the table and depth guidelines are formulated to maximize fire and brilliance for the different diamond shapes.

4 cs education


Every diamond is a miracle of time and place and chance. Like snowflakes, no two are exactly alike.

Until the middle of the twentieth century, there was no agreed-upon standard by which diamonds could be judged. GIA created the first, and now globally accepted standard for describing diamonds: Color, Clarity, Cut, and Carat Weight. Today, the 4Cs of Diamond Quality is the universal method for assessing the quality of any diamond, anywhere in the world.

The creation of the Diamond 4Cs meant two very important things: diamond quality could be communicated in a universal language, and diamond customers could now know exactly what they were about to purchase.


The GIA Diamond Clarity Scale has 6 categories, some of which are divided, for a total of 11 specific grades.

Flawless (FL)

No inclusions and no blemishes visible under 10x magnification

Internally Flawless (IF)

No inclusions visible under 10x magnification

Very, Very Slightly Included (VVS1 and VVS2)

Inclusions so slight they are difficult for a skilled grader to see under 10x magnification

Very Slightly Included (VS1 and VS2)

Inclusions are observed with effort under 10x magnification, but can be characterized as minor

Slightly Included (SI1 and SI2)

Inclusions are noticeable under 10x magnification

Included (I1, I2, and I3)

Inclusions are obvious under 10x magnification which may affect transparency and brilliance

Many inclusions and blemishes are too tiny to be seen by anyone other than a trained diamond grader. To the naked eye, a VS1 and an SI2 diamond may look exactly the same, but these diamonds are quite different in terms of overall quality. This is why expert and accurate assessment of diamond clarity is extremely important.

colorless d

Diamond Color Actually Means Lack of Color

The diamond color evaluation of most gem-quality diamonds is based on the absence of color. A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond has no hue, like a drop of pure water, and consequently, a higher value. GIA's D-to-Z diamond color-grading system measures the degree of colorlessness by comparing a stone under controlled lighting and precise viewing conditions to masterstones stones of established color value.

GIA's diamond D-to-Z color-grading scale is the industry's most widely accepted grading system. The scale begins with the letter D, representing colorless, and continues, with increasing presence of color, to the letter Z.

Many of these color distinctions are so subtle that they are invisible to the untrained eye; however, these distinctions make a very big difference in diamond quality and price.

what is cut



A Diamond's Cut Unleashes Its Light

Diamonds are renowned for their ability to transmit light and sparkle so intensely. We often think of a diamond's cut as shape (round, emerald, pear), but a diamond's cut grade is really about how well a diamond's facets interact with light.

Precise artistry and workmanship are required to fashion a stone so its proportions, symmetry, and polish deliver the magnificent return of light only possible in a diamond.

A diamond's cut is crucial to the stone's final beauty and value. And of all the diamond 4Cs, it is the most complex and technically difficult to analyze.

To determine the cut grade of the standard round brilliant diamond - the shape that dominates the majority of diamond jewelry – GIA calculates the proportions of those facets that influence the diamond's face-up appearance. These proportions allow GIA to evaluate how successfully a diamond interacts with light to create desirable visual effects such as:

Brightness: Internal and external white light reflected from a diamond

Fire: The scattering of white light into all the colors of the rainbow

Scintillation: The amount of sparkle a diamond produces, and the pattern of light and dark areas caused by reflections within the diamond

GIA's diamond cut grade also takes into account the design and craftsmanship of the diamond, including its weight relative to its diameter, its girdle thickness (which affects its durability), the symmetry of its facet arrangement, and the quality of polish on those facets.

The GIA Diamond Cut Scale for standard round brilliant diamonds in the D-to-Z diamond color range contains 5 grades ranging from Excellent to Poor.


Diamond Carat Weight

Diamond carat weight is the measurement of how much a diamond weighs. A metric "carat" is defined as 200 milligrams.

Each carat can be subdivided into 100 'points.' This allows very precise measurements to the hundredth decimal place. A jeweler may describe the weight of a diamond below one carat by its 'points' alone. For instance, the jeweler may refer to a diamond that weighs 0.25 carats as a 'twenty-five pointer.' Diamond weights greater than one carat are expressed in carats and decimals. A 1.08 carat stone would be described as 'one point oh eight carats.'

All else being equal, diamond price increases with diamond carat weight, because larger diamonds are more rare and more desirable. But two diamonds of equal carat weight can have very different values (and prices) depending on three other factors of the diamond 4Cs: Clarity, Color, and Cut.

It's important to remember that a diamond's value is determined using all of the 4Cs, not just carat weight.

how did the carat system start
How did the carat system start

How did the carat system start?

The modern carat system started with the carob seed. Early gem traders used the small, uniform seeds as counterweights in their balance scales. The carat is the same gram weight in every corner of the world.

What are "magic sizes"?

Some weights are considered "magic sizes" – half carat, three-quarter carat, and carat. Visually, there's little difference between a 0.99 carat diamond and one that weighs a full carat. But the price differences between the two can be significant.


diamond laser-inscribed with its GIA report number, to provide verification if it is ever lost or stolen.




power of diamond


Element Fire

Diamond is a stone of exceptional power and miraculous abilities. It is a king of gems, the strongest precious stone. Ancient Greeks named it "adamas", meaning invincible, indestructible. Diamond is usually colorless or exhibiting pale hues of yellow, brown, blue, grey, pink, green colors. Brightly colored Diamonds are unique; invariably they attract a lot of admiration, acquire individual names and detailed descriptions. If Diamond is properly faceted, it will sparkle with multi-colored rays of light. Famous Persian poet Hafiz remarked "the rainbow is confined in it forever".

Astrologists regard Diamond as a stone of Sun and Venus.

Talismans & amulets

Diamond is one of the amulets of motherhood. In antiquity Diamond was considered a symbol of purity and innocence. It also symbolized perfection, invincibility, force and authority. Diamond is capable to drive away fears and to protect the owner from negative influences. Diamond is an amulet that protects against fire, water, snakes, thieves, illnesses, predatory animals, sorcery, poison. Mary Stuart always had Diamond with her, believing it will help to identify a poison. Always having a piece of Diamond hardwired in one's clothes protects the owner from evil eye and evil spell.

healing power of diamond

Healing properties

Diamond strengthens all the energy centers of its wearer. In the East Diamond is used as heart tonifier. For this purpose it has to be placed for a night in a glass of water, and on the next day patient should drink this water in several steps. Since old times people believed Diamonds are miracle stones. It was believed, that a person carrying Diamonds will not be bothered by stomach aches. Moreover, neither poison nor memory loss will affect him. A variety of surprising healing properties were attributed to Diamonds. Ancient Hindus considered that "vibrations" of a Diamond stone render positive influence on various organs of the body, in particular on heart and brain. It was also believed, that Diamonds protect the owner from illnesses, drive away bad dreams, fight severe depressions, prevent apoplexy and formation of /calculi/. Furthermore, Diamond reduces fever, fights infections, helps with skin diseases, reduces physical tiredness and invigorates metabolism. The ring with Diamond helps at delivery at birth. The Green Diamonds, especially helpful for the latter, are considered a symbol of motherhood.

Magical properties

Since ancient times Diamond was believed to exert favourable influence on its owner. It was said that the stone provides strength, courage and invincibility in fights. Diamond always was considered a stone of winner; it was the talisman of Julius Caesar, Louis IV and Napoleon. Diamond makes the person invincible, preserves against sorcery, reflects negative energy back to its sender, helps to keep the mind clear and focused and strengthens abstract thinking. Magical properties of Diamond depend on its quality: stones with defects and cracks are considered dangerous and even fateful. The mount should not prevent Diamond from touching the skin, otherwise its magical properties will disappear. For stronger influence it is recommended to wear Diamond on the left hand and on the neck.