Outlook for Ocean Remote Sensing (Global Component). October 4, 2005. Dr. Eric Lindstrom Physical Oceanography Program NASA Headquarters Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate. GCOS Essential Climate Variables
October 4, 2005
Dr. Eric Lindstrom
Physical Oceanography Program
Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate
Essential Climate Variables that are both currently feasible for global
implementation and have a high impact on UNFCCC requirements.
Atmospheric(over land, sea and ice)
Surface: Air temperature, Precipitation, Air pressure, Surface radiation budget, Wind speed and direction, Water vapour.
Upper-air: Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance), Upper-air temperature (including MSU radiances), Wind speed and direction, Water vapour, Cloud properties.
Composition: Carbon dioxide, Methane, Ozone, Other long-lived greenhouse gases , Aerosol properties.
Surface: Sea-surface temperature, Sea-surface salinity, Sea level, Sea state, Sea ice, Current, Ocean colour (for biological activity), Carbon dioxide partial pressure.
Sub-surface: Temperature, Salinity, Current, Nutrients, Carbon, Ocean tracers, Phytoplankton.
River discharge, Water use, Ground water, Lake levels, Snow cover, Glaciers and ice caps, Permafrost and seasonally-frozen ground, Albedo, Land cover (including vegetation type), Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), Leaf area index (LAI), Biomass, Fire disturbance.
CEOS is constructing a response to the GCOS SatelliteRequirements for UNFCCC (in process Sept 2006
- POC is Barbara Ryan USGS).
Satellite Observation of the Climate System
The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Response to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan (IP)
Developed by CEOS and submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) on behalf of CEOS by the United States of America (USA) delegation
Draft - September 2006
End of life
CNES/EUMETSAT/NASA/NOAA signedLetter of Agreement for Jason-2
Summary (using a color bar chart….)
Planned or pending approval
ECV Sea Level
Validate and “regionalize” the established general requirements for coastal remote sensing (Paul Digiacomo to set the stage).
2) Suggest priorities for new/modified remote sensing products to better serve regional applications.
3) Provide ideas for next generation remote sensing capabilities.
Ocean & Coastal
Sea level trend changes in the past decade have complex global patterns that show basin-wide changes of ocean circulation on decadal time scales
L-L Fu, JPL
For the first time in history the global mean sea level is directly estimated from global observations. The contribution of ice melting is estimated when global mean sea level is coupled with ocean temperature.
Ocean Heat Storage
- Interannual variability 2 Wm-2 in both data sets: forcing is 0.6 Wm-2/decade
- Changes must occur in cloud radiative forcing
- New question: how does time varying cloud radiative forcing relate to
equilibrium state feedback given varying ocean warming rates?
The effect of salinity on surface height is comparable to the effect of temperature.
Salinity is a key density variable that drives circulation. It is a critical area of scientific uncertainty in the oceans' capacity to store and transport heat that affects the Earth's water cycle and climate.
Conventional in situ sampling is sparse.
Aquarius will provide the first-ever global maps of salt concentration on the ocean surface.
Aquarius will measure global SSS synoptically every month for 3 years, that will link the water cycle, climate, and ocean.
Aquarius is joint US-Argentine collaboration - mission confirmation review is scheduled for Fall, 2005
Percentage of dynamic height variability due to salinity (Maes and Behringer, 2000).
Spatial Scale (km)
AVHRR MODIS NPP VIIRS NPOESS VIIRS
SeaWiFS MODIS NPP VIIRS NPOESS VIRS
QuikSCAT, WindSat/Coriolis NPOESS CMIS
Extent: DMSP AMSR-E CMIS; Thickness: ICESat
Aquarius (mission confirmation, Fall 2005)