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Outlook for Ocean Remote Sensing (Global Component). October 4, 2005. Dr. Eric Lindstrom Physical Oceanography Program NASA Headquarters Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate. GCOS Essential Climate Variables

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outlook for ocean remote sensing global component

Outlook for Ocean Remote Sensing (Global Component)

October 4, 2005

Dr. Eric Lindstrom

Physical Oceanography Program

NASA Headquarters

Earth Science Division, Science Mission Directorate

slide2

GCOS Essential Climate Variables

Essential Climate Variables that are both currently feasible for global

implementation and have a high impact on UNFCCC requirements.

Domain

Atmospheric(over land, sea and ice)

Surface: Air temperature, Precipitation, Air pressure, Surface radiation budget, Wind speed and direction, Water vapour.

Upper-air: Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance), Upper-air temperature (including MSU radiances), Wind speed and direction, Water vapour, Cloud properties.

Composition: Carbon dioxide, Methane, Ozone, Other long-lived greenhouse gases , Aerosol properties.

Oceanic

Surface: Sea-surface temperature, Sea-surface salinity, Sea level, Sea state, Sea ice, Current, Ocean colour (for biological activity), Carbon dioxide partial pressure.

Sub-surface: Temperature, Salinity, Current, Nutrients, Carbon, Ocean tracers, Phytoplankton.

Terrestrial

River discharge, Water use, Ground water, Lake levels, Snow cover, Glaciers and ice caps, Permafrost and seasonally-frozen ground, Albedo, Land cover (including vegetation type), Fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR), Leaf area index (LAI), Biomass, Fire disturbance.

slide3

CEOS is constructing a response to the GCOS SatelliteRequirements for UNFCCC (in process Sept 2006

- POC is Barbara Ryan USGS).

Satellite Observation of the Climate System

The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Response to the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Implementation Plan (IP)

Developed by CEOS and submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Subsidiary Body on Scientific and Technical Advice (SBSTA) on behalf of CEOS by the United States of America (USA) delegation

Draft - September 2006

slide7

“KNOWN” FUTURE ALTIMETRY MISSIONS

In orbit

End of life

Approved

Planned/Pending approval

GFO

NPOESS

IPY

Data gap

ERS-2/RA

Sentinel-3

ERS-1

ENVISAT/RA-2

ALTIKA

TOPEX/Poseidon

Data gap?

Data gap?

Jason-3?

Jason-1

Jason-2

CNES/EUMETSAT/NASA/NOAA signedLetter of Agreement for Jason-2

CRYOSAT-2

GODAE

summary assessment
Summary Assessment
  • No Bar Nothing
  • Red Something, Below Threshold
  • Yellow At threshold (marginal)
  • Green Above threshold (fully adequate)
  • Threshold = GCOS ECV threshold
  • Mission nominal lifetime
  • Beyond lifetime = go to Red within six months

Summary (using a color bar chart….)

example ecv sea level
Example - ECV Sea Level

Planned or pending approval

In orbit

Approved

T/P

High accuracy

Reference orbit

Jason

Jason-1

Jason-2

ERS-1

ERS-2

Lower accuracy

Polar orbit

S-3

Envisat

GFO

Altika

NPOESS

ECV Sea Level

Above threshold

Below threshold

At threshold

slide11

Challenges for the IOOS Workshop

Validate and “regionalize” the established general requirements for coastal remote sensing (Paul Digiacomo to set the stage).

2) Suggest priorities for new/modified remote sensing products to better serve regional applications.

3) Provide ideas for next generation remote sensing capabilities.

backup slides

BACKUP SLIDES

ERIC LINDSTROM

slide13

NASA Earth Observatories

Ocean & Coastal

Research

several decades of satellite data records
Several Decades of Satellite Data Records
  • Sea Surface Temperature
  • Sea Surface Topography
  • Sea Surface Winds
  • Chlorophyll
  • Precipitation
  • Sea ice
  • Geoid
slide15

Global Mean Sea Level Trends

Sea level trend changes in the past decade have complex global patterns that show basin-wide changes of ocean circulation on decadal time scales

L-L Fu, JPL

slide16

Global Mean Sea Level Trends

For the first time in history the global mean sea level is directly estimated from global observations. The contribution of ice melting is estimated when global mean sea level is coupled with ocean temperature.

J. Willis/JPL

slide17

2004 )

Ocean Heat Storage

- Interannual variability 2 Wm-2 in both data sets: forcing is 0.6 Wm-2/decade

- Changes must occur in cloud radiative forcing

- New question: how does time varying cloud radiative forcing relate to

equilibrium state feedback given varying ocean warming rates?

sea surface salinity aquarius
Sea Surface Salinity: Aquarius

The effect of salinity on surface height is comparable to the effect of temperature.

Salinity is a key density variable that drives circulation. It is a critical area of scientific uncertainty in the oceans' capacity to store and transport heat that affects the Earth's water cycle and climate.

Conventional in situ sampling is sparse.

Aquarius will provide the first-ever global maps of salt concentration on the ocean surface.

Aquarius will measure global SSS synoptically every month for 3 years, that will link the water cycle, climate, and ocean.

Aquarius is joint US-Argentine collaboration - mission confirmation review is scheduled for Fall, 2005

Percentage of dynamic height variability due to salinity (Maes and Behringer, 2000).

enhancing ocean altimetry wide swath
Enhancing Ocean Altimetry: Wide Swath
  • Wide Swath Ocean Altimentry (WSOA) will measure ocean surface topography with a spatial resolution that is required to sample ocean eddies, an important component of the ocean circulation.
  • WSOA (solid box plus dashed box) will resolve eddies in most of the oceans. It takes more than 5 nadir altimeters to match the WSOA resolution.

1000 yr

climate

change

100 yr

Future Satellites

10 yr

1 yr

Time Scale

1 mon

Current Satellites

1 wk

WSOA

1 d

10-2

10-1

1

10

102

103

104

Spatial Scale (km)

research and operations
Research and Operations
  • Process is an evolution
  • Maturity of transition is parameter dependent
  • Objective: “… extend relevant NASA research to help NOAA meet short and long-term service and operational mission requirements”
  • NASA and NOAA have “R2O” working group to address transition

Ocean Parameter

  • Sea Surface Temperature

AVHRR  MODIS  NPP VIIRS  NPOESS VIIRS

  • Sea Surface Height TOPEX/Poseidon  Jason  OSTM  …
  • Chlorophyll-a

SeaWiFS  MODIS  NPP VIIRS  NPOESS VIRS

  • Ocean Surface Wind

QuikSCAT, WindSat/Coriolis  NPOESS CMIS

  • Sea Ice Properties (Extent, Thickness)

Extent: DMSP  AMSR-E  CMIS; Thickness: ICESat

  • Gravity

GRACE

  • Sea Surface Salinity

Aquarius (mission confirmation, Fall 2005)