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UNESCO SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION POLICY MEETING GABORONE, BOTSWANA 22-26 SEPTEMBER 2008. SOUTH AFRICAN REPORT. Presentation structure. Socio-economic backdrop to policy Policy review history (1994 – 2008) Recent OECD review on South Africa’s National System of Innovation
SOUTH AFRICAN REPORT
Socio-economic backdrop to policy
Policy review history (1994 – 2008)
Recent OECD review on South Africa’s National System of Innovation
Took up government in 1994 with deficit;
High levels of poverty and unemployment;
Serious challenges in provision of basic services;
Step-change in growth since 2004, about 4.5% on average, but ‘consumer and commodity-led’;
Longest run of positive economic growth in SA’s recorded history;
Higher growth potential but ‘energy intensive’;
Economic activity ‘fossil-fueled’;
Severe shortage of science, engineering and technical skills;
Explosive shifts in human settlement patterns (growth of urban slums);
Downturn in global economic outlook, 2008...
Turbulence in global markets, rising inflation, serious concerns over rising food prices …
1995-1996 Green Paper consultations
2007/2008 Follow-up SETI reviews every 4 to 5 years
2007 Ten Year Innovation Plan
2007 OECD SA-NSI Review
Reviews generate the story-line. The story presents the case for the budget-line
2004 Ministry for Science & Technology established
2004 Science Vote abolished as planning & budgeting coordination instrument and new governance model adopted for SETIs
2002/2003 Follow-up SETI reviews every 4 to 5 years
2002 National R&D Strategy
2001 EU SA-NSI Review
1999 Scenarios-focused Research and Technology Foresight completed, 12 sectors plus 1 cross-cutter (human capital)
1998 Department of Science & Technology established; KPIs for SETIs; FRD changed to NRF
1998 Innovation Fund established
1997 Reviews – Science, Engineering and Technology Institutions (SETIs), 12 plus system-wide synthesis report;
1997 Research and Technology Audit
1996 White Paper – adoption of NSI concept
A fragmented National System of Innovation (NSI);
An inadequately co-ordinated NSI;
The erosion of innovative capacity;
Poor levels of investment in research and development;
An urgent need to redress the imbalances created by past policies and actions;
A lack of resources to meet commitments in respect of regional development;
A poor competitive position within the global environment.
Creation of clear channels for capacity building, science and technology human resource development and inequity redress;
Establishment of mechanisms to re-allocate government spending according to new priorities to promote innovative solutions, particularly related to problems of the disadvantaged;
Processes that will challenge government research institutions to derive more support from competitive sources of funding;
Introduction of processes allowing longer-term perspectives in planning and budgeting for R&D; and
Promotion of institutional changes and new management approaches to accommodate the above proposed mechanisms and processes.
The White Paper on Science and Technology mandated an investigation into the structure and governance of South Africa’s science and technology system.
During 1997 the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST) therefore initiated and managed a series of twelve separate evaluations of science, engineering and technology institutions in order to establish how these institutions could be restructured or reconfigured to meet broad national goals.
The teams for the twelve institutional reviews were drawn up from senior science and technology practitioners and managers both locally and internationally. The criteria of race and gender were also strong determinants in the selection process. A number of candidates were from the African continent.
The Review concluded that parts of the system were functioning extremely well – for example, some core competencies of the CSIR, MINTEK, the Council for Geoscience (CGS) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) were evaluated and acclaimed as world-class.
In most of the other institutions the basic technical expertise was seen to be of a high standard. However, there were deficiencies of varying degrees of severity in respect of strategic vision, research management and equitable human resource development.
HSRC to re-orientate to public purpose R&D agenda and CSIR to chart a way back to science as opposed to consulting contract focus.
From a structural perspective significant recommendations were made regarding the Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC)-separate public interest from commercial operations, the South African Weather Bureau (agentise SAWB) and the Africa Institute of South Africa.
Quality of life
Technology based growth
Technology Achievement Index
(Improvement and Innovation)
SET Human Capital
Technology/ trade mix
Key sector performance
New sectors (e.g. biotech)
Business R&D intensity
ICT uptake indicators
Researchers in workforce
Demographics of SET workforce
Current R&D Capacity
Future R&D capacity
Technology balance of payments
Share of publications
R&D intensity (investment)
S&T post-graduate degrees
University Exemptions in Maths and Science
“The South African National System of Innovation: Structure, Policies and Performance
Research Development Production
Local Industry &
Research Development Manufacturing
Technology dependency or knowledge economy?
Technology commercialisation capacity: science, engineering, technology, IP, industry analysis, market analysis, investment analysis
Enhanced funding capacity: seed/grant funds, loans/equity, venture funds
Technology nursery: advisory services, incubation, SME support
Leading and resourcing Centres of Competence
5 GRAND CHALLENGES
Become a Key player in knowledge base on ‘Global Change’ science and planning
Farmer to Pharma: establish an integrated local ‘value-chain’
a knowledge economy
Become a ‘serious’ participant in global ‘Space’ industry
Technologies for an ‘Energy-secure Future’
Human and Social Dynamics: ‘empowering society in a complex world’
Masters ~ per yr (incl. coursework)
Hons grad rates~ per yr
HG Maths and
Science ~ per yr
SET graduation rates ~per yr
Masters graduation rates ~ per year
Hons graduation rates ~ per year
Senior certificatewith HG Maths and
Science ~ per year
HE SET graduation rates ~ per year
X 10 increase
SET Ph.Ds Produced = ~50% Total Ph.D Production!
IN WHICH LEAGUE DO WE WANT TO PLAY?
A 5 x increase from current situation
A 10 x increase from current situation
South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChi);
Centres of Excellence;
Centres of Competence;