unesco science technology innovation policy meeting gaborone botswana 22 26 september 2008 n.
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UNESCO SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATION POLICY MEETING GABORONE, BOTSWANA 22-26 SEPTEMBER 2008. SOUTH AFRICAN REPORT. Presentation structure. Socio-economic backdrop to policy Policy review history (1994 – 2008) Recent OECD review on South Africa’s National System of Innovation

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unesco science technology innovation policy meeting gaborone botswana 22 26 september 2008

UNESCOSCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & INNOVATIONPOLICY MEETINGGABORONE, BOTSWANA22-26 SEPTEMBER 2008

SOUTH AFRICAN REPORT

presentation structure
Presentation structure

Socio-economic backdrop to policy

Policy review history (1994 – 2008)

Recent OECD review on South Africa’s National System of Innovation

Review responses

on the economy
On the economy

Took up government in 1994 with deficit;

High levels of poverty and unemployment;

Serious challenges in provision of basic services;

Step-change in growth since 2004, about 4.5% on average, but ‘consumer and commodity-led’;

Longest run of positive economic growth in SA’s recorded history;

Higher growth potential but ‘energy intensive’;

Economic activity ‘fossil-fueled’;

Severe shortage of science, engineering and technical skills;

Explosive shifts in human settlement patterns (growth of urban slums);

Downturn in global economic outlook, 2008...

Turbulence in global markets, rising inflation, serious concerns over rising food prices …

science policy review history 1995 2008
Science PolicyReview history (1995 – 2008)

1995-1996 Green Paper consultations

R’m

3137

2007/2008 Follow-up SETI reviews every 4 to 5 years

2007 Ten Year Innovation Plan

2007 OECD SA-NSI Review

Reviews generate the story-line. The story presents the case for the budget-line

2004 Ministry for Science & Technology established

2004 Science Vote abolished as planning & budgeting coordination instrument and new governance model adopted for SETIs

R’m

1630

2002/2003 Follow-up SETI reviews every 4 to 5 years

2002 National R&D Strategy

2001 EU SA-NSI Review

1999 Scenarios-focused Research and Technology Foresight completed, 12 sectors plus 1 cross-cutter (human capital)

R’m

418

1998 Department of Science & Technology established; KPIs for SETIs; FRD changed to NRF

1998 Innovation Fund established

1997 Reviews – Science, Engineering and Technology Institutions (SETIs), 12 plus system-wide synthesis report;

1997 Research and Technology Audit

R’m

276

1996 White Paper – adoption of NSI concept

the issues the white paper addressed as failures
The issues the White Paper addressed as failures

A fragmented National System of Innovation (NSI);

An inadequately co-ordinated NSI;

The erosion of innovative capacity;

Poor levels of investment in research and development;

An urgent need to redress the imbalances created by past policies and actions;

A lack of resources to meet commitments in respect of regional development;

A poor competitive position within the global environment.

the new policy directions that were proposed within the nsi framework included the following
The new policy directions that were proposed within the NSI framework included the following

Creation of clear channels for capacity building, science and technology human resource development and inequity redress;

Establishment of mechanisms to re-allocate government spending according to new priorities to promote innovative solutions, particularly related to problems of the disadvantaged;

Processes that will challenge government research institutions to derive more support from competitive sources of funding;

Introduction of processes allowing longer-term perspectives in planning and budgeting for R&D; and

Promotion of institutional changes and new management approaches to accommodate the above proposed mechanisms and processes.

slide7

1997 SETI Reviews

The White Paper on Science and Technology mandated an investigation into the structure and governance of South Africa’s science and technology system.

During 1997 the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology (DACST) therefore initiated and managed a series of twelve separate evaluations of science, engineering and technology institutions in order to establish how these institutions could be restructured or reconfigured to meet broad national goals.

The teams for the twelve institutional reviews were drawn up from senior science and technology practitioners and managers both locally and internationally. The criteria of race and gender were also strong determinants in the selection process. A number of candidates were from the African continent.

1997 review findings
1997 Review findings

The Review concluded that parts of the system were functioning extremely well – for example, some core competencies of the CSIR, MINTEK, the Council for Geoscience (CGS) and the Medical Research Council (MRC) were evaluated and acclaimed as world-class.

In most of the other institutions the basic technical expertise was seen to be of a high standard. However, there were deficiencies of varying degrees of severity in respect of strategic vision, research management and equitable human resource development.

HSRC to re-orientate to public purpose R&D agenda and CSIR to chart a way back to science as opposed to consulting contract focus.

From a structural perspective significant recommendations were made regarding the Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC)-separate public interest from commercial operations, the South African Weather Bureau (agentise SAWB) and the Africa Institute of South Africa.

1998 scorecard approach introduced for science council kpis
1998 Scorecard approach introduced for Science Council KPIs
  • Financial & Investment perspective
  • Stakeholder/Customer perspective
  • Organizational perspective
  • Innovation and learning perspective
  • Human Resource Development perspective
kpis financial investment perspective
KPIs: Financial & Investment Perspective
  • Targeting and managing research investment
  • ROI on intangible property/savings to state & society
  • Market/user relationship
  • Competitiveness (first, second or last port of call)
  • Management of operating costs, technology, capital assets)
kpis stakeholder customer perspective
KPIs: Stakeholder/customer perspective
  • Support of NSI goals
  • National development imperatives
  • Ensuring access to knowledge infrastructure
  • Technology diffusion/dissemination of information & research results
  • Supporting quality policy decision-making
  • Promoting networks & linkages
kpis organizational perspective
KPIs: Organizational perspective
  • Close to operational best practice
  • Quality of science & technology base
  • Quality of science & technology services/products
  • Relevance of research portfolio
  • Profile i.r.o. partnerships/joint ventures/co-operation agreements
  • Corporate culture
kpis innovation learning perspective
KPIs: Innovation & learning perspective
  • Contribution to national “knowledge stock”
  • Development of human resources in science & technology (knowledge capital)
  • Integration with “knowledge based economy”
  • Nature and extent of Foresight capacity for engagement in new core technology areas
  • Nature and degree of commitment to promoting “public understanding of science and technology”
kpis hrd transformation
KPIs: HRD & Transformation
  • Training and development
  • Employment equity
  • Remuneration equity
  • Democratization
wealth creation

Twin objectives

Wealth Creation

Quality of life

SET Human Capital

Business performance

Technical progress

(Improvement and Innovation)

Imported know-how

Current R&D Capacity

Future R&D capacity

2002 Indicators based National R&D Strategy

slide16

Wealth Creation

Quality of life

Technology based growth

Technology Achievement Index

Business performance

Technical progress

(Improvement and Innovation)

SET Human Capital

Technology/ trade mix

Key sector performance

New sectors (e.g. biotech)

Patents

Business R&D intensity

ICT uptake indicators

Imported know-how

Researchers in workforce

Demographics of SET workforce

Current R&D Capacity

Future R&D capacity

Technology balance of payments

Share of publications

R&D intensity (investment)

University enrolments

S&T post-graduate degrees

University Exemptions in Maths and Science

Indicators

oecd sa nsi review the process
OECD SA-NSI ReviewThe Process
  • Project co-ordination: NACI and OECD Secretariat
  • Negotiated and finalised TOR
  • DST developed the SA Background Report

“The South African National System of Innovation: Structure, Policies and Performance

oecd sa nsi review process cont
OECD SA-NSI Review Process cont…
  • Using the report as a tool for the national strategic conversation
  • Programme included players in all the major stakeholder groups of the STI sector
  • Culmination in a briefing session with Minister Mangena and the DST Executive
2007 oecd review key findings
2007 OECD Review: Key Findings
  • Human Capital for SET is sub-optimal.
  • A long term planning Framework is needed.
  • The governance framework needs more vertical and horizontal integration.
  • There is an innovation chasm with an insufficient number of research products directly influencing the real economy.
  • Science, Technology and Innovation for the 2nd economy should be more pronounced and visible.
oecd review responses
OECD Review: Responses
  • The development of the 10 Year Innovation Plan;
  • Human Capital Strategy for Science, Engineering and Technology;
  • Inter-departmental Knowledge-Economy Forum established;
  • Structured bilaterals with sector departments;
  • Active engagement within government cluster system;
  • Governance problem persists – may lead to proposal to revisit sector-focused governance model;
  • Proposed establishment of the Technology Innovation Agency;
  • Considering innovative 2nd Economy STI interventions.
10 year innovation plan
10-year innovation plan
  • South Africa adopted a Ten-Year Innovation Plan (2008-2018) in July 2007
  • Major emphasis is the commitment to national action for transitioning to a knowledge-based economy through:-
    • Human capital development (HCD)
    • Knowledge generation and exploitation (R&D)
    • Knowledge infrastructure development
    • Addressing the “innovation chasm” between research results and societal benefits
slide24

OVERSEAS TECHNOLOGY SOURCES

Research Development Production

$

Technology

Transfer

Innovation “Chasm”

Local Industry &

Industrial Products

Local

Research

Research Development Manufacturing

Technology dependency or knowledge economy?

new kid on the block technology innovation agency tia
New Kid on the blockTechnology Innovation Agency (TIA)

Technology commercialisation capacity: science, engineering, technology, IP, industry analysis, market analysis, investment analysis

Enhanced funding capacity: seed/grant funds, loans/equity, venture funds

Technology nursery: advisory services, incubation, SME support

Leading and resourcing Centres of Competence

it s time to be ambitious
It’s time to be ambitious

5 GRAND CHALLENGES

Become a Key player in knowledge base on ‘Global Change’ science and planning

Farmer to Pharma: establish an integrated local ‘value-chain’

Innovation

towards

a knowledge economy

Become a ‘serious’ participant in global ‘Space’ industry

Technologies for an ‘Energy-secure Future’

Human and Social Dynamics: ‘empowering society in a complex world’

the number of researchers the key enabler
The number of researchers the key enabler
  • The number of qualified researchers will not be achieved without outside intervention
  • A clear career path from BSc to researcher level has to be established,
  • The Masters and PhD intern programmes have to become significant parts of government funded research with graduation targets being significant part of the monitoring.
  • The production line of researchers will have to be continually watched for bottlenecks, including hindrances and bottlenecks going in and out of the systems
  • Any one bottleneck, such as math matriculants, science and engineering graduates, research projects and mentoring expertise will potentially derail the human capital development programme.
the current pipeline is woefully inadequate
The current pipeline is woefully inadequate

Existing

National SET

pipeline (2005)

Masters ~ per yr (incl. coursework)

PhD’s ~

per yr

Hons grad rates~ per yr

HG Maths and

Science ~ per yr

SET graduation rates ~per yr

26,000

3,200

33,500

2,900

260,000

561

32,000

335,000

5,610

29,000

PhD’s

per year

Masters graduation rates ~ per year

Hons graduation rates ~ per year

Senior certificatewith HG Maths and

Science ~ per year

HE SET graduation rates ~ per year

Strategic Destination

Required

National and

SET target

pipeline (2025)

X 10 increase

SET Ph.Ds Produced = ~50% Total Ph.D Production!

strategic positioning
STRATEGIC POSITIONING

IN WHICH LEAGUE DO WE WANT TO PLAY?

South Africa

In

2026

A 5 x increase from current situation

South Africa

In

2026

A 10 x increase from current situation

available instruments for implementing the hcd strategy
Available instruments for implementing the HCD Strategy

South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChi);

Centres of Excellence;

Centres of Competence;

National Facilities;

Science Councils;

International postings.