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BLOOD. Blood. Transports substances Maintains homeostasis Type of CT composed of cells w/in a noncellular matrix Hematophobia = fear of blood. Blood and Blood Cells. 2 components 1. cells ( rbc , wbc , platelets) 45%

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  • Transports substances
  • Maintains homeostasis
  • Type of CT composed of cells w/in a noncellular matrix
  • Hematophobia= fear of blood
blood and blood cells
Blood and Blood Cells
  • 2 components

1. cells (rbc, wbc, platelets) 45%

2. Plasma (water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, cellular waste) 55%

Hematocrit- volume of blood cells in a sample, should be 45%. The remaining fluid is plasma 55%.

3 types of blood cells
3 types of blood cells
  • Red blood cells- erythrocytes
  • White blood cells- leukocytes
  • Platelets- therombocytes
red blood cells
Red Blood Cells
  • Biconcave shape
  • 5 mil/ cubic millimeter
  • Lacking nuceli
  • Do not divide
  • Formed in bone marrow= Hemotopoeisis
  • Live 120 days phagocytized by liver and spleen
rbc function
RBC Function
  • Transports O₂ throughout body, picks up CO₂
  • Hemoglobin= molecule which combines with O₂ to transport it
oxygen levels
Oxygen Levels
  • Oxyhemoglobin- oxygen rich- bright red
  • Deoxyhemoglobin-not carrying O₂- bluish red
elements critical to rbc production
Elements Critical to RBC Production
  • Folic Acid
  • Vitamin B12
  • Iron- needed to synthesize hemoglobin
  • Anemia= too few RBC
  • Erythropoietin secreted by kidneys stimulates RBC formation
white blood cells
White Blood Cells
  • Function- defend the body against disease- causing agents
  • Granulocytes- granular cytoplasm
  • Agranulocytes- lacking granular cytoplasm
granulocytes 3 types
Granulocytes- 3 types
  • Neutrophils- very active in phagocytosis of bacteria and are present in large amount in the pus of wounds
  • 60% WBC- most common

2. Eosinophils- attack parasites

  • Control allergic reaction
  • 2 % WBC

3. Basophiles- produce Heparin(prevents blood clots)

  • Produces Histamine(causes inflammatory reaction)
  • 1% WBC
agranulocytes 2
Agranulocytes- 2

1. Monocytes- precursors of macrophates

  • Phagocytosis- bacteria, debris, other cells
  • 6% WBC

2. Lymphocytes- main constituents of the immune system which is a defense against the attack of pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protista

  • Yield antibodies/ arrange them on their membrane
  • 30% WBC
platelets thrombocytes
Platelets (thrombocytes)
  • Help initiate formation of blood clots, close breaks in damaged vessels
  • Arise from cell in bone marrow called megakaryocytes
  • These cells fragment and release small sections (platelets) of cytoplasm into circulation
  • Less that ½ the size of a red blood vessel
  • Pg 530 1-3
  • Pg 533 1-3
  • Pg 534 1-2
  • Pg 537 1
  • Pg 539 2-4
blood plasma
Blood Plasma
  • Liquid portion of blood
  • 92% water
  • Transport nutrients, gases , vitamins, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, and pH
plasma proteins
Plasma Proteins

1. Albumins- made in liver , maintain osmotic pressure and blood volume(blood pressure)

2. Globulins- 3 groups: alpha, beta, gamma

  • Alpha& Beta- from liver, transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins
  • Gamma- from lymphatic tissues, antibodies for immunity

3. Fibrinogen- from liver, largest molecules of plasma proteins- important for blood clotting. Major event in blood clotting is the change of fibrogen into fibrin.

  • Process of stopping bleeding
  • Coagulation causes the formation of blood clots
  • 3 key events

1. Blood vessel spasm- damaged vessels stimulate muscle tissue in wall of blood vessels to contract. Slows or stops blood flow, lasts several minutes. Platelets release serotonin, a vasoconstrictor which maintains the muscle spasm longer


Platelet plug formation- platelets stick to surfaces of damaged blood vessels and to each other to form a plug


3. Blood coagulation- most effective, forms a blood clot(hemotoma) . Injury causes an increase in the release of coagulants.

Main event- conversion of fibrinogen into long protein threads called fibrin.


Tissue damage= production of prothrombin activator

  • Prothrombin- converted to thrombin
  • Thrombin acts as a enzyme to cause change of fibrinogen to fibrin, which trap platelets and blood cells to form a hemotoma
  • Thrombus= blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel
  • Embolus= clot moves and becomes lodged in another place

Coagulation- thickening of blood to form a clot

blood diseases
Blood Diseases
  • Anemia- iron deficiency
  • Sickle Cell Anemia- genetic disorder
    • Sickle shaped blood cells
    • Pain, lethargy, organ failure, stroke

Leukemia- type of cancer

    • Overproduction of wbc- take place of rbc
    • treatable with bone marrow transplants, chemotherapy, radiation

Infectious Mononuclosis-

    • Mono-
    • viral infection

Blood Poisoning- Septicemia

    • infection enters blood stream- can be deadly
    • treated with antibiotics
  • Thrombocytopenia- low production of platelets
    • Bleeding and bruising

Hemophila- genetic disorder

    • Failure of blood to clot
    • Treated with blood transfusions that include clotting agents

Hemophilia is carried on the X chromosome

  • Females XHXH normal
  • XHXh carrier
  • XhXh hemophiliac
  • Males X HY normal
  • X h Y hemophiliac

Systemic Circulations- delivers blood to all body cells and carries away waste

  • Pulmonary circulation- eliminates CO₂ and oxygenates blood (lung pathway)
structure of the heart
Structure of The Heart
  • Heart Size – about 14 cm x 9 cm (the size of a fist).
  • Located in the mediastinum
  • The distal end of the heart is called the apex.
coverings of heart
Coverings of Heart
  • Pericardium- encloses the heart (like a bag)
    • Visceral- inner
    • Parietal- (outer, attached to diaphragm, sternum and vertebrae)
  • Pericardial cavity- contains fluid for the heart to float in, reducing friction
wall of heart
Wall of Heart
  • Epicardium– outer layer, reduces friction
  • Myocardium – middle layer, mostly cardiac muscle
  • Endocardium – thin inner lining, within chambers of the heart
heart chambers and valves
Heart Chambers and Valves
  • Your heart is a double pump. Circulation is a double circuit:
    • Pulmonary (lungs only)
    • Systemic (rest of the body)
heart has 4 chambers
Heart has 4 chambers:
  • 2 Atria – thin upper chambers that receive blood returning to the heart through veins.. Right and Left Atrium
  • 2 Ventricles – thick, muscular lower chambers. Receive blood from the atria above them. Force (pump) blood out of the heart through arteries. Right and left ventricle.
  • Septum – separates the right and left sides of the heart
valves of the heart
Valves of the Heart
  • – allow one-way flow of blood. 4 total
  • 2 Atrioventricular Valves (AV)
    • bicuspid valve or mitral valve- Between left atrium and ventricle
    • tricuspid valve- Between right atrium and ventricle
  • 2 semilunar Valves
    • Aortic Semilunar – or just aortic valve. Between the left ventricle and the aorta
    • Pulmonary Semilunar, or just pulmonary valve. Between the left ventricle and the aorta
arteries veins
  • Superior and Inferior Vena Cava- lead to right atrium carrying deoxygenated blood from all parts of body.
  • Pulmonary Trunk- divides into left/right pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary Arteries- carry deoxygenated blood to lungs
  • Pulmonary Veins- bring oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium
  • Aorta- large artery carrying oxygenated blood to body from left ventricle
path of blood through heart
Path of Blood through Heart
  • Deoxygenated blood enters right atrium through the vena cava
  • Deoxygenated Blood moves into the right ventricle
  • Deoxygenated Blood goes out the pulmonary arteries and heads to the lungs
  • Oxygenated Blood returns from lungs and enters the left atrium
  • Oxygenated Blood moves into the left ventricle
  • Oxygenated blood moves out of the left ventricle through the aorta and to the body

Superior vena cava

Inferior Vena Cava



The cusps (flaps) of the bicuspid and tricuspid valves are anchored to the ventricle walls by fibrous “cords” called chordaetendineae, which attach to the wall by papillary muscles. This prevents the valves from being pushed up into the atria during ventricular systole.

heart actions
Heart Actions
  • Cardiac Cycle: One complete heartbeat. The contraction of a heart chamber is called systole and the relaxation of a chamber is called diastole.