Resource and Development – Chapter 1
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Resource and Development – Chapter 1 Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.

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Resource and development chapter 1

Resource and Development – Chapter 1

Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs, provided, it is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable can be termed as ‘Resource’.

It involves an inter- dependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions.

Resources are free gifts of nature. Resources are a function of human activities. Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. They transform material available in our environment into resources and use them.

Resource and development chapter 1


On the Basis of Origin

Biotic Resources: These are obtained from biosphere and have life such as human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.

Abiotic Resources: All those things which are composed of non-living things are called abiotic resources. For example, rocks and metals.

Identify at least two resources from each


Resource and development chapter 1

On the Basis of Exhaustibility

Renewable Resources: The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishableresources. For example, solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife, etc. The renewable resource may further be divided into continuous or flow.

Non-Renewable Resources: These occur over a very long geological time. Minerals and fossil fuels are examples of such resources. These resources take millions of years in their formation. Some of the resources like metals

are recyclable and some like fossil fuels cannot be recycled and get exhausted with their use.

Resource and development chapter 1

On the Basis of Ownership:

Individual Resources: These are also owned privately by individuals. Many farmers own land which is allotted to them by government against the payment of revenue. In villages there are people with land ownership but there are many who are landless. Urban people own plots, houses and other property. Plantation, pasture lands, ponds, water in wells etc. are

some of the examples of resources ownership by individuals. Make a list of resources owned by your household.

Community Owned Resources: There are resources which are accessible to all the members of the community. Village commons (grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, etc.) public parks, picnic spots, playgrounds in urban areas are de facto accessible to all the people living there.

National Resources: Technically, all the resources belong to the nation. The country has legal powers to acquire even private

property for public good. You might have seen roads, canals, railways being constructed on fields owned by some individuals. Urban Development Authorities get empowered by the government to acquire land. All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife, land within the political boundaries and oceanic area upto12 nautical miles (19.2 km) from the coast termed as territorial water and resources therein belong to the nation.

International Resources: There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilise these without the concurrence of international institutions.

Resource and development chapter 1

On the Basis of the Status of Development

Potential Resources: Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilised. For example, the western parts of India particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.

Developed Resources: Resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilisation. The

development of resources depends on technology and level of their feasibility.

Stock: Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these, are included among stock. For example, water is a compound of two inflammable gases; hydrogen and oxygen, which can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have the required technical ‘know-how’ to use them for this purpose. Hence, it can be considered as stock.

Reserves: are the subset of the stock, which can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know-how’ but their use has not been started. These can be used for meeting future requirements. River water can be used for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is being utilised only to a limited extent. Thus, the water in the dams, forests etc. is a reserve which can be used in the future.

Resource and development chapter 1

Major problems

• Depletion of resources for satisfying the greed of few individuals.

• Accumulation of resources in few hands, which, in turn, divided the society into two segments i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor.

• Indiscriminate exploitation of resources has led to global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation.

Imagine, if the oil supply gets exhausted

one day, how would this affect our life style?

Resource and development chapter 1

Sustainable development

Sustainable economic development means ‘development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.’

Resource and development chapter 1

  • The issues addressed included:

  • systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals

  • alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change

  • new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke

  • the growing scarcity of water

  • It endorsed the global forest principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving sustainable development in the 21st century

Resource and development chapter 1


  • It is the maximum utilization of resources available in a country. Resource planning is the judicious use of resources. Resource planning becomes more important in a country like India, where resources are not distributed properly. For example; many states are rich in mineral and deficient in other resources, such as Jharkhand is rich in minerals, but there is problem of drinking water and other facilities, Arunachal Pradesh has plenty of water but lack of other development because of lack of resources.

  • These types of discriminations can be reduced or completely vanished with proper planning of judicious use of resources.

  • It can be done:

  • Identification of resources through surveys, maps, measurements

  • Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans

  • Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans

  • In India it is done through the 5 year plans.

  • Prepare a list of 20 resources found in India and also identify the resources that are important but deficit in your state.

Resource and development chapter 1

Conservation of Resources:

Overuse of resources creates many socio-economic problems. Many leaders and thinkers have been advocating for the judicious use and conservation of resources. Gandhiji told “There is enough for everybody’s need and not for any body’s greed.” He thought that exploitative nature of modern technology is the root cause for depletion at global level. He believed in the production by masses and not in the mass production. Thus, conservation of resources at various levels becomes most important.

Over-utilization can cause serious ecological damage.

Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was published in 1987.

Its targets were multilateralism and interdependence of nations in the search for a sustainable development path. The report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment - the Stockholm Conference - which had introduced environmental concerns to the formal political development sphere.

Resource and development chapter 1


land is an asset of a finite magnitude, therefore, it is important to use the available land for various purposes with careful planning.

India’s distribution of land

Resource and development chapter 1

Total geographical area of India is 3.28million sq km. Land use data, however, is available only for 93 per cent of the total geographical area because the land use reporting for most of the north-east states except Assam has not been done fully. Moreover, some areas of Jammu and Kashmir occupied by Pakistan and China have also not

been surveyed.

The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.

Net Sownarea is the total area sown with crops in a country. Area sown more than once is counted once only.

Gross sown area is the area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area.

Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, as it was outlined in the National Forest Policy (1952). It was considered essential for maintenance of the ecological balance. However it is only 22% in India.

Resource and development chapter 1

  • Causes include: Human

  • Land clearance, such as clear cutting and deforestation in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa

  • Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices-

  • Livestock including overgrazing and over drafting in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra

  • Inappropriate irrigation in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh

  • Urban sprawl and commercial development-

  • Soil contamination-

  • Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals

  • Increase in field size due to economies of scale, reducing shelter for wildlife, as hedgerows and copses disappear

  • Exposure of naked soil after harvesting by heavy equipment

  • Monoculture, destabilizing the local ecosystem

  • Dumping of non-biodegradable trash, such as plastics

Resource and development chapter 1

  • Natural causes are:

  • Erosion caused by running Water such as streams and rivers in hilly areas.

  • Depletion of forests.

  • Increase in salinity & alkalinity of land due to water logging and droughts.

  • Erosion caused by the wind in semi-arid and arid areas.

Resource and development chapter 1

  • Measures taken to stop land degradation-

  • Afforestation

  • Proper management of grazing

  • Planting of shelter belts of plants (A windbreak or shelterbelt is a plantation usually made up of one or more rows of trees or shrubs planted in such a manner as to provide shelter from the wind and to protect soil from erosion)

  • stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes

  • Proper management of waste lands

  • control of mining activities

  • proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment

Resource and development chapter 1

  • The top most layer of the earth crust which is composed of organic and non-organic matter is called soil.

  • Soil is the most important renewable natural resource.

  • It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.

  • The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few cm in depth.

  • A number of factors contribute to the soil formation and fertility.

  • Parent rocks: - the rock on which the soil is formed decomposes and disintegrates under the processes of weathering. The characteristics of rocks influence the characteristics of soils. For example on lava rocks black soils and iron oxide rich rocks red soils are formed.

  • Climate: - climate influence the rate of weathering of rocks and type of vegetation, thus these influence the characteristics of soils.

  • Slope: - the nature of relief and slope influence the accumulation of soils. Mountains have thin soil cover but the plains have thick soil cover.

  • Time: - time provides maturity to the soil.

  • Various forces of nature such as change in temperature, actions of running water, wind and glaciers, activities of decomposers etc. contribute to the formation of soil.

  • Chemical and organic changes which take place in the soil are equally important.

Resource and development chapter 1

On the basis of the factors responsible organic and non-organic matter is called soil.

for soil formation, colour, thickness, texture, age,

chemical and physical properties, the soils of India

are classified in different types.

They are :

Forest soils

Alluvial Soils

Red and Yellow soils

Black Soils

Laterite Soils

6. Arid Soils

Resource and development chapter 1

  • Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation organic and non-organic matter is called soil.

  • The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.

  • Soil formation and Soil Erosion are simultaneous processes and a balance is maintained,

  • This balance is disturbed due to human activities likea. deforestation,b. over-grazing,c. construction and mining,d. Defective methods of farming: Ploughing in a wrong way i.e. up and down the slope form channels for the quick flow of water leads to soil erosion.

  • It is also disturbed due to natural forces like:a. Wind,b. Glacier andc. Running water leads to soil erosionby

  • making deep cuts called Gullies which leads to Badland topography. (Chambal )

  • water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.

Resource and development chapter 1

Some organic and non-organic matter is called soil.of the methods of controlling soil erosion are:

a. In Hilly areas: Ploughing along the contour lines

can slow down the speed/flow of water down the slopes.

This is called contour ploughing. Steps can be cut out on the

slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion.

Western and central Himalayas have well developed

terrace farming.

b. Agricultural regions: Large fields can be divided into strips.

Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops.

This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known

as strip cropping.

Resource and development chapter 1

c. Dry areas: Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

Resource and development chapter 1

Q1. What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas ?

Q2. When and why was the Rio-de-Janero Earth summit held ?

Q3. Write two characteristics each of Khadar and Bangar ?

Q4. What type of soil is found in river deltas of the eastern coast ? Give three main features of this type of soil

Q5. What do you, mean by land use pattern ? Name the factors that determine the use of land.

Q.6. ‘ Natural resources are free gift of nature’. Do you agree with this statement? Give three reasons.

Q.7. Do you agree that technical and economic development have led to more consumption

of resources? Comment.