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  1. Get out your notes

  2. Skeleton System Vocab Quiz • Use your Notes • Define the following word on a piece of paper • Osseus • Porous • Axial • Cartilage • Circulation • Appendicular • Calcify • Brittle • Flexible • Sedentary

  3. Skeletal system Structure and Function

  4. Structure of Bone • Made up of osseous tissue • What does osseous mean? • Have their own blood vessels and nerves allowing for circulation • Why is this important? • Growth and healing

  5. Structure of Bone • Cells • Osteoblasts: • bone building, bone repairing cells in the periosteum • Osteocytes: • osteoblast embedded within the bone matrix • Osteoclasts: • cells that cause absorption of bone

  6. Structure of Bone • Periostium • Dense, fibrous membrane covering bone • Contains blood vessels • Essential for bone cell survival and bone formation

  7. Functions of bones • Support: body structure and shape, framework • Protect: vital organs • Storage: mineralscalcium & phosphorus • Produce: blood cells • Movement: where muscles attach, allow flexibility when moved by muscles

  8. Types of Bones • Long Bones • Longer than their width • Humerus • Radius • Ulna • Femur • Tibia • Fibula

  9. Types of Bones

  10. Types of Bones • Short Bones • Length and width are nearly equal • Wrist and hands (carpals) • Ankle and feet (tarsals)

  11. Types of Bones

  12. Types of Bones • Flat Bones • 2 layers of bone divided by a narrow space • Skull • Sternum • Ribs • Shoulder Blade

  13. Types of Bones

  14. Types of Bones • Irregular Bones • Don’t fit into the other categories • Face • Spine • Hip

  15. Types of Bones

  16. Types of Bones - Groups • Axial • Pertaining to the central structures of the body • Skull • Vertebrae • Ribs and Sternum 80 bones

  17. Types of Bones - Groups • Appendicular • Pertaining to any body part added to the axis • Arms • Legs • Hands • Feet • Pelvis 126 Bones

  18. Types of Bones - Groups • How many bones are in the human body???? • Axial + Appendicular = 206 bones

  19. Bone Formation • Skeleton fully formed by 2nd month of fetal development (all cartilage) • Ossification begins after 8th week of fetal development • Childhood and adolescence: ossification exceeds bone loss • Early adulthood through middle age: ossification equals bone loss • After age 35: bone loss exceeds ossification ** Ossification – laying down of new bone tissue by osteoblasts

  20. Joints • Where 2 bones meet • Types are classified by the amount of movement allowed • Immovable - Cranium • Slightly moveable - Vertebral discs • Free moving - All appendicular joints

  21. Joints • Free Moving Joints • Hinge Joint • Ball and Socket Joint • Pivot Joint • Gliding Joint

  22. Ligaments • Connect bone to bone • ACL • PCL • MCL • LCL • UCL

  23. Tendons • Connect muscle to bone • Patellar Tendon • Bicep Tendon

  24. Bone Markings - Purpose • Join one bone to another • Provide a surface for attachment of muscles • Create an opening for passage of blood vessels and nerves • Use as landmarks

  25. Bone Markings • Process: bony prominence or projection • Condyle: a rounded knuckle-like prominence usually at a point of articulation • Epicondyle: small projection • Head: rounded articulating process at the end of a bone • Spine: a sharp, slender projection

  26. Bone Markings • Tubercle: a small rounded process • Tuberosity: a large rounded process • Depression: a hollow-region or opening • Fissure: narrow, slit-like opening • Sulcus: a groove • Facet: a small area on a bone

  27. Axial Skeleton Skull 22 Bones

  28. Axial Skeleton Ear (12 Bones)

  29. Axial Skeleton Ribs 12 pairs Attach posteriorly and anteriorly by costal cartilage Sternum

  30. Axial Skeleton Vertebral Column (26 Bones) • Cervical - 7 bones • Thoracic – 12 bones • Lumbar – 5 bones • Sacral – 5 fused bones • Coccyx – 3 – 4 fused bones

  31. Appendicular Skeleton • Shoulder Girdle • Clavicles (2): collar bones • Scapulas (2): shoulder blades

  32. Appendicular Skeleton • Upper Extremities • Humerus: upper arm • Radius: thumb side of forearm • Ulna: little finger side of forearm • Carpals (8): wrist bones • Metacarpals (5): hand bones • Phalanges (14): finger bones

  33. Appendicular Skeleton

  34. Appendicular Skeleton • Pelvic Girdle • Os Coxae (2): contains the acetabulum (hip socket) • 3 components: ilium, ischium, pubis • Also, contains the saccrum

  35. Appendicular Skeleton

  36. Appendicular Skeleton • Lower Extremities • Femur: thigh bone • Patella: kneecap • Tibia: shin bone • Fibula: lateral bone of lower leg • Tarsals (7): ankle bones; talus and calcaneus • Metatarsals (5): foot bones • Phalanges (14): toe bones; great toe = halux

  37. Appendicular Skeleton

  38. Appendicular Skeleton

  39. Fractures • Page 155 • Figure 8.12 • Draw and label in your notes • Add Oblique and Spiral after simple transverse Common Disorders of the Skeletal System • Page 153-154 • Table 8.3 • Copy the Conditions, their disorders, and their symptomsinto your notes