Cognitive Development in Adulthood and Old Age. Posada, M., y de la Fuente, J (2006 ). Memoria y atención. En C. Triadó y F. Villar (coords.) Psicología de la Vejez. Madrid: Alianza
Posada, M., y de la Fuente, J (2006 ). Memoria y atención. En C. Triadó y F. Villar (coords.) Psicología de la Vejez. Madrid: Alianza
Villar, F. (2006). Inteligencia y sabiduría. En C. Triadó y F. Villar (coords.) Psicología de la Vejez. Madrid: Alianza
1. Investigation design:
longitudinal or transverse
Selection of subjects
2. Familiarity with the work/objectives
3. Influence of speed
4. Tendency to be cautious:
Commission errors and omission errors
5. Motivational problems
6. The problem of working with means
* Intelligenceclearlydiminisheswithage: itincreasesuntil 20-30 years, staysstable and laterdescends in a slow and steadymanner
* There are differencesbetweenabilities:
Thepunctuations in themanipulativescaledecrease y in the verbal scalestaythesameordecrease more slowly.
Free memory (square)
or with clues (circle)
Figure 1.1: Measure of 301 adults, living in residencies, en various measures of processing speed, operative memory, free memory y with clues and vocabulary, throughout life. Adapted with the permission of Park and co.
* Havenotdetecteddecreasesearlierthan 60 years of age, and somecapacities are preserveduntil 80 years of age.
* After 80-85 years, the decline can putdailyfunctioning at risk.
* Thereispossibly a methodologicalbias
*Different trajectories for the fluid and crystallized intelligence fluida y para la inteligencia cristalizada
FLUID depends more on biological factores
CRYSTALLIZED more dependent on cultural factors
* Loss or terminal decline
Hypotheses centered on the Hardware or Structure
* Sickness (especially cardiovascular and arthritis) *Hypothesis of speed or peripheral slowing down
*Hypothesis of general slowing down
* Hypothesis of the reduction of resources: attention, working memory, mental energy…
Hypothesiscenteredon Software orSystemfunctioning
*Hypothesis of thelack of use (current and pastintellectualstimulation)
*Hypothesis of insufficientstrategies
* Hypothesis of contextual and generationalchanges
According to Salthouse
Accomodation: Tendency to disconnect yourself gradually from activities that supercede your cognitive limitations and to focus on other activities
Compensation: The same efficiency is maintained by changing the manner of completing work
Reparation: Intervention or training to restore cognitive abilities to a previous level
Cognitiveefficiency can be maintainedwithstrategiesthatmaximizeonstrongpoints and minimizeonweakpoints.
According to Baltes
Formal and Informal learning
Biological and cerebral
Results of informationprocessing
According to Baltes
Functional base: habitual functioning
The reserve capacity decreases with age, although it only disappears completely with dementia. learning potential
Processing information evaluates the Base Reserve and cognitive mechanics maximize the differences not so called upon in daily life
Base Reserve: maximumefficiencypotential
Development reserve: Maximumefficiencypotentialwithhelp: instrumental or personal
Mastery or Being an Expert
*Development of abilities and advanced knowledge in a professional activity or field
* Better sensibility to aspects relevant to a problem
* Better maintenance of information in the MLP
* Result of learning and practice
* Effectively getting close to problems and absence of transfer
* Cognitive functioning is stable in these areas, even though there are other intellectual losses cognitive pragmatics
According to Baltes
Development is essentially a process of selective adaptation
The limit of resources adds an additional adaptive pressure.
More pressure comes from the changes associated with the age in plasticity and availability of external and internal resources.
Maximization of wins and minimization of losses
Successful development or consecution of priority goals
Recuperation of the los of select fields
Regulation of loss (reorganization of function in inferior levels)
Identification of fields and direction of the process of change.
Restriction of many behaviors and potential goals.
Better the means directed to the goals that are available.
Search of favorable environments.
Adquire new external and internal means to achieve goals, due to:
Tomado de Villar, F Titularidad.
Thereductionwithage in thelimitedresource, necessarytoprocessinformation, would reduce efficiency en cognitiveprocesses.
Notveryaffectedwithage. Seniors are less precise en vigilancetestssincethebeginning. This can diminishduetofactorslikethediscriminabilityortheduration of stimuli.
The ability to focus on important information without valuing the irrelevant aspects decreases with complex tests.
Divided Attention – Change of Attention
Deterioration with complex works in divided attention. Equal efficiency as young people, although they are slower, in changing attention. Practice can prevent this. Worse efficiency with inhibitory mechanisms
Some types of memory are affected by
old age while others stay intact.
The majority of studies are about visual iconic memory and indicate that despite changes in vision, the effects of aging are unimportant.
It is difficult to evaluate due to the complicated distinction between the role of the senses and that of the sensorial memory.
Short-TermMemory and OperativeMemory
Short-Term differences exist en experimental situations with tests that accentuate daily situations and in linguistic or visual experiments.
Bigger problems when the work is complicated (Operative Memory) enters the game of the executive center (attentional processes)
- Diminishment of the Operative memory capacity?
Explicaciones de las pérdidas (Light, 1991 en Pousada y de la Fuente, 2006)
* Codification: Have not found empirical evidence of the idea that seniors use a more superficial process than younger people.
* Recuperation: Seniors show more difficulties en some works (word recall) and are similar in others (implicit memory, recognition, recall with clues) the information is available (equal capacity of *storage) but not accessible.
* Empiricalevidence of animportantdeteriorationafter 30-40 years > Short-TermMemory, procedural orsemantic
* Fewdifferences in the control of reality
* Thesame in thewaythe fluid intelligencemanages new information: theevents are unpredictable. Impossibleto use routinesorlearnedschemestocodethem.
* Thedeficits are reducedwith contextual helpinginformation in thecodification and recuperation.
Therememberdevelopedfactswell, and fromtheperiod of 10-30 years of age.
Theyrememberautobiographical and remotepublicfactsworse.
Implicit and ExplicitMemory
Longitudinal Studies (Victoria y Betula)
Worsenswithage. Young generationshaveworseefficiency, which can hidethe decline withage.
Thedifferencesbetweenseniors and youth are duetoeducationlevel, nottoage.
Worsememory of names, faces and words, butnot of texts.
Preserve thecapacities of
Lower education level Faster memory deterioration and lower verbal abilities
SOCIO-EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE HEALTHY HABITS
* Criticisms of postformal thought as a goal of development
Decrements with age in the capacity to resolve formal work.
Formal works do not relate to daily problems.
Ignorance of contextual and emotional aspects.
Caracteristics of postformal thought
Surges in the middle age with experience
Qualitatively different from formal: integrates logical and analitical reasoning with intuition
There is no uniform conception of postformal though
More interpretive and relativistic
Multicausality and multiple solutions
Caracteristics of postformal thought
Admits contradiction as a basic aspect of reality
Dialectic reasoning: capacity to integrate contradictory information
Finds new problems
Is pragmatic and permits better resolving social dilemmas
Find the key elements of an ambiguous and poorly-defined problem
Understandingthelife as a collection of interrelatedcontexts and changesthroughoutlife
Cultural relativismalthoughthere are universal values
Metaknowledge(fallibility, relativism, uncertainty)
Context and favorable environments/experiences (cultural level, profession as an educator or directing others, …)
Experience in planning, management and vital revision as a resolution of problems, to be a mentor or advisor, motivation for human themes or an impulse to better and personal excellence
Personal disposition like creativity, intelligence, flexibility, open to new experiences
Evaluated with moral dilemmas like the following:
“A good friend calls and says they are going to commit suicide: What should you do and take into account?”
Only 5% of people appear wise.
This percentage is maintained through generations (perhaps you are wise en aspects relative to your generation and moment in life)
The number of wise answers increases with clinical psychologists or when they are resolved en groups.