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Adulthood: Cognitive Development. Age 25 + What is adult IQ, and how does expertise develop?. What is intelligence?. Spearman’s “G” General intelligence One basic trait Inferred from vocabulary, memory, & reasoning. How is age related to intelligence?.

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adulthood cognitive development

Adulthood: Cognitive Development

Age 25 +

What is adult IQ, and how does expertise develop?

what is intelligence
What is intelligence?
  • Spearman’s “G”
    • General intelligence
    • One basic trait
    • Inferred from vocabulary, memory, & reasoning
how is age related to intelligence
How is age related to intelligence?
  • IQ – Once thought to decline after age 20
  • Now only thought to decline at age 60, 70, 80
  • Seattle longitudinal study
    • Intellectual functioning in older adults increases if they do paid work that is intellectually stimulating.
what are two clusters types of intelligence
What are two clusters (types) of intelligence?
  • Fluid intelligence
    • Quick and flexible
    • Provides easy learning
    • Good working memory & abstract thought
    • Decreases during adulthood
      • Can be temporarily counteracted by crystallized intelligence
  • Crystallized intelligence
    • Accumulated learning
    • Vocabulary - Language
    • Increases during adulthood
do you remember
Do you remember?
  • What is Spearman’s “G”?
  • What is the difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence?
    • Which declines with age?
    • How can this decline be temporarily counteracted?
what are sternberg s types of intelligence
What are Sternberg’s types of intelligence?
  • Analytic intelligence
    • Book smarts
      • Remembering things in high school and college
  • Creative intelligence
    • Flexible
    • Imaginative thinking
    • Not standard or conventional
  • Practical intelligence
    • Street smarts
how can selective optimization compensation help adults
How can selective optimization& compensation help adults?
  • People select what they want to focus on
    • E.g. Pediatric nursing (Selection)
  • People compensate for aging or other difficulties
    • E.g. Wear glasses or increase type size on computer (Compensation)
  • Build their nursing expertise (Optimization)
expert cognition thinking
Expert Cognition (Thinking)

How do experts think?

what is a selective expert
What is a selective expert?
  • Everyone has more skill and knowledge than others in what they are interested in
what determines who is an expert
What determines who is an expert?
  • E.g. Brain surgeon
  • More skilled and knowledgeable than novices
how do experts think
How do experts think?
  • Intuitive
    • Rely on past experience
    • More intuitive, less Stereotypical
    • Knows when to bend formal procedures and rules
    • E.g. “Gut feeling” that this is what to do
  • Automatic
    • Thinking without deliberate, conscious thought
      • E.g. Driving
    • Process most tasks automatically
      • Saving conscious thought for unfamiliar challenges
how do experts think cont
How do experts think?Cont.
  • Strategic
    • Better strategies handling unexpected problems
  • Flexible
    • Being creative and flexible when needed.
  • Example = “The miracle on the Hudson” Flight
what is the relationship between expertise and age
What is the relationship between expertise and age?
  • Expertise needs time, training, ability and practice to develop
  • Expertise can sometimes overcome the effects of age
  • Experienced adults often use selective optimization with compensation
do you remember1
Do you remember?
  • What are Sternberg’s three types of intelligence?
  • How can adults use their intellectual strengths to compensate for declining abilities?
  • What is intuitive and automatic thinking?