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WW II: The Home Front. Lend-Lease Act (1941). Authorized president to lend or lease arms and equipment to nations whose defense he considered vital to U.S. Primarily designed to help Great Britain Extended to Soviet Union later that year. Atlantic Charter (1941).

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lend lease act 1941
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
  • Authorized president to lend or lease arms and equipment to nations whose defense he considered vital to U.S.
  • Primarily designed to help Great Britain
  • Extended to Soviet Union later that year

Atlantic Charter(1941)

Secret meeting between FDR and Churchill

War aims and common principles

day of infamy
“Day of Infamy”

December 7, 1941

slide6

Internment Camps

Japanese-Americans

• anti-Japanese hysteria swept across USA

• Americans believed Japanese Americans and Immigrants..security risk to the U.S.

Nisei – Japanese born in America (citizens)

Issei – Born in Japan (immigrants)

Executive Order 9066

• Feb. 1942 – FDR issues executive Order 9066

• All people of Japanese ancestry on the West Coast were to be relocated to American prison camps

• WRA – War Relocation Authority forced people to “internment camps”

• Japanese-American property loss $400 million – allowed two suitcases and one

duffel bag brought to camps

• 127,000 people relocated between 1942-1945

• Barbed wire camps in desert (remote areas)

• Armed guards

slide9

Was this Constitutional?

• Supreme Ct. said it was appropriate

• Military emergency

• Risk to National Security

• Not based on racial profiling

• 1988 U.S. government apologizes

• Each survivor given tax free $20,000

• 9/11???????? GITMO

slide11

Economic Impact

  • No More Depression
  • Retooling industry
  • • U.S. Produces twice as much as Axis powers
  • • Unemployment drops drastically
  • •War production pulls America out of the Depression
  • • 1945 - 300,000 planes, 100,000 tanks, 2,600 ships, 6 million rifles,
  • billion rounds of ammo
  • – 1942 Auto production stopped
  • – From 1903-40 US companies produced 75k planes
  • » In 1942 FDR asked for 60k planes
  • – Liberty Ships (produced in 4½ days) Era of industrial cooperation
  • – B-17 made by several companies with men at war we needed a workforce
  • – Provided great opportunity for women and minorities
slide12

FDR gives the government more power

• Size of federal Government triples during WWII

• Office of War Mobilization (OWM)

• Coordinated move from peacetime economy to war time economy

• In charge of overseeing Nation’s war production

WPB

• War Production Board (WPB)

• Directed the conversion of factories to war

time production

• Tanks, planes, ammunition etc

• All car production stopped

• cars rationed

slide13

􀂄

Paying for the War

• Taxes to Beat the Axis

• Middle and lower class income taxes raised – 10X more than before war

• War Bonds

• Gov. sells war bonds to raise $

• $186 billion raised

• National Debt Soars

slide14

The Draft

• Selective Service Act changed

• 18-37 draft ages

• 15 million men drafted

• 300 women volunteer

• Nurses, secretaries, pilots, drivers, etc.

slide15

At Home

relationships impacted quick weddings

– Gold Star Mothers

– Many lose multiple family

members

» Sullivans,

􀂄

slide16

Office of Civilian Defense

• 12 million volunteers to ensure security at home

• White Helmets/White Arm Bands

• Aircraft Identification

• Blackout/Block Wardens

• Stored sandbags, flashlights, helmets, buckets,

and hoses in the event of an air raid

• Organized scrap drives & recycling

slide17

Women

􀂄 Government reclassified 55% of jobs to allow women to work

– By 1943 every single woman employed

» Rosie the Riveter

􀂄

When single women fully employed, married women join force

– Companies recognize burden, provide many services (child care, shopping,

food services)

Women’s Air Force Service

Pilots (WASP)

– Led by Jackie Cochran

– Women test and transport planes

from factory to the airbases

» Free up men for the front Nursing Corps

– Primary military role

Results

Women taste independence

– Many desire to stay on job Baby Boom

slide18

Rationing… starts 1943

– Families issued ration books

– Provide 40% of vegetables consumed at home

- Victory Gardens feed those at home

􀂄 - recycling efforts

– Metal, rubber, nylon

- All buy War Bonds Hollywood shines

slide19

Rationing

Office of Price Administration (OPA)

• OPA responsible for food and good distribution in short supply

• Prevent Inflation

• Americans forced to ration goods on home front to make sure soldiers

were well supplied

  • Gas Rationing
  • Gas ration books
  • • Gasoline, kerosene, tires (rubber), coffee,
  • sugar, meat, butter, canned goods,
  • chocolate, cigarettes, etc.
  • Food Rationing
  • • Food Ration Books – Once a month
  • • Red Points – meat, fish, dairy products
  • • 2lbs. Meat a week
  • • Blue Points – Canned and processed goods
slide20

Social Effects

American Propaganda

• Gov. wanted to keep morale high on the home

front

• People were bombarded with pro-U.S. and anti-

Axis propaganda

• Gov. influenced every aspect of American life

Office of War information (OWI)

1 • Encouraged patriotism, rationing,

conservation, and work

• Victory Gardens – backyards/empty lots

• Recycling – paper, metal, food fats

• Media and Hollywood support the war effort –

Movies, songs, posters, radio, cartoons, etc

slide24

Entertainment

  • Linked “home” to those who were overseas
  • The radio had long been a staple in the U.S. household
  • – Talk shows, music, soap opera, mysteries, quiz shows, sports news
      • Movies were the great escape
  • – War movies, Comedies, Newsreels
slide25

Entertainment 1941- USO

– United Service Organization

– Established as Soldiers Home Away from Home - 3000 clubs

– Stars would flock to the clubs and travel to entertain

» Bob Hope

Music- Big Band

– Forerunner of Be-Bop/ R&B

– Made us feel good

– Glen Miller dies while on USO tour

slide26

Impact still felt today Housing Boom

– Tract housing (small 1 level ranch)

– Architecture becomes simple

– VA Loans= Soldiers buy homes

GI Bill = Soldiers go to college

slide30

Other Issues

􀂄 1941 introduction of Penicillin

– Dr Alexander Fleming

– Designed to reduce infection from war wounds

– Revolutionized medicine

􀂄 Civil Air Patrol (CAP)

– Formed Dec 1941

– Duties to patrol coast/ search and rescue for

downed aircraft

– 18 months of patrol 24 mil miles, spotted 173 U - Boats,

located 363 survivors of ship wrecks or air

crashes