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Twelfth Edition. Adolescence . by John W. Santrock. University of Texas at Dallas. Power point slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, Ph.D. Touro College. Gender Chapter 5 Outline. Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender Biological Influences on Gender

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slide1

Twelfth Edition

Adolescence

by John W. Santrock

University of Texas at Dallas

Power point slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, Ph.D.

Touro College

gender chapter 5 outline
GenderChapter 5 Outline
  • Biological, Social, and Cognitive Influences on Gender
    • Biological Influences on Gender
    • Social Influences on Gender
    • Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Gender Stereotypes, Similarities, and Differences
    • Gender Stereotyping
    • Gender Similarities and Differences
    • Gender in Context
gender chapter 5 outline1
GenderChapter 5 Outline

(Continued from previous slide)

  • Gender-Role Classification
    • Masculinity, Femininity, and Androgyny
    • Context, Culture, and Gender Roles
    • Androgyny and Education
    • Traditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Males
    • Gender-Role Transcendence
  • Developmental Changes and Junctures
    • Early Adolescence and Gender Intensification
    • Is Early Adolescence a Critical Juncture for Females?
biological influences on gender
Biological Influences on Gender
  • Gender refers to the psychological and sociocultural dimensions of being male or female.
  • A gender role is a set of expectations that prescribes how females and males should think, act, and feel.
biological influences on gender1
Biological Influences on Gender

(Continued from previous slide)

  • Pubertal Change and Sexuality
  • Freud and Erikson: Anatomy Is Destiny
  • Evolutionary Psychology and Gender
social influences on gender
Social Influences on Gender
  • Parental Influences
    • Mothers’ Socialization Strategies
    • Fathers’ Socialization Strategies
  • The social cognitive theory of gender
    • Gender development is influenced by observation and imitation of others’ gender behavior, as well as by the rewards and punishments they experience for gender-appropriate and -inappropriate behavior
  • Siblings
social influences on gender1
Social Influences on Gender

(Continued from previous slide)

  • Peers
  • Schools and Teachers
    • Compliance, following rules, and being neat and orderly are valued and reinforced in many classrooms.
    • A large majority of teachers are females.
    • Boys are more likely than girls to have learning problems.
    • Boys are more likely than girls to be criticized.
    • School personnel tend to stereotype boys’ behavior as problematic.
social influences on gender2
Social Influences on Gender

(Continued from previous slide)

  • Schools and Teacher (Continued)
    • In a typical classroom, girls are more compliant, boys more rambunctious
    • Boys get more instruction than girls and more help when they have trouble with a question
    • Boys are more likely than girls to get lower grades and to be grade repeaters
    • When elementary school children are asked to list what they want to do when they grow up, boys describe more career options than girls do.
social influences on gender3
Social Influences on Gender

(Continued from previous slide)

  • Mass Media Influences
    • Television shows directed at adolescents are extremely stereotyped in their portrayal of the sexes, especially teenage girls

(Beal, 1994; Comstock & Scharrer, 2006).

cognitive influences on gender
Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Cognitive Developmental Theory of Gender
    • Children’s gender-typing occurs after they have developed a concept of gender.
    • Once children think of themselves as male or female, they organize their world on the basis of gender.
  • Gender Schema Theory
    • Gender-typing emerges as individuals gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture.
cognitive influences on gender1
Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Gender Schema Theory
    • A schema is a cognitive structure, a network of associations that guide an individual’s perceptions.
    • A gender schema organizes the world in terms of female and male. Individuals are internally motivated to perceive the world and to act in accordance with their developing schemas.
gender stereotypes similarities and differences
Gender Stereotypes, Similarities, and Differences
  • Gender stereotypes
    • Are broad categories that reflect our impressions and beliefs about females and males.
  • Sexism
    • Prejudice and discrimination against an individual because of his or her sex.
gender stereotyping
Gender Stereotyping

Types of Items Developed to Measure Old-Fashion and Modern Sexism

Fig. 5.1

gender similarities differences
Gender Similarities & Differences
  • Physical Similarities and Differences
  • Cognitive Similarities and Differences
  • Socioemotional Similarities and Differences
  • “There is more difference within the sexes than between them.”
          • - Ivy Compton-Burnett
gender similarities differences1
Gender Similarities & Differences

Visiospatial Skills of Males and Females

Fig. 5.2

socioemotional differences
Socioemotional Differences
  • Rapport talk
    • language of conversation and a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships. Females enjoy rapport talk and conversation that is relationship oriented more than boys do.
  • Report talk
    • Talk that gives information. Males tend to hold center stage though such verbal performances as storytelling, joking, and lecturing with information.
context culture and gender roles
Context, Culture, and Gender Roles
  • Context
  • Culture
  • Education
androgyny and education
Androgyny and Education
  • Advocates of androgyny programs argue that traditional sex-typing is harmful for all students and especially has prevented many girls from experiencing equal opportunity
traditional masculinity and problem behaviors in adolescent males
Traditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Males
  • Boy code
    • Boys are socialized to not show feelings and act tough
  • Boys could benefit from being socialized to express anxieties and concerns
traditional masculinity and problem behaviors in adolescent males1
Traditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Males

(Continued from previous slide)

  • Premarital sex
  • Alcohol & drugs
  • Delinquent activities
gender role transcendence
Gender Role Transcendence
  • The view that when an individual’s competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized on a person basis rather than on the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny (Pleck, 1983).
developmental changes and junctures
Developmental Changes and Junctures
  • Gender intensification hypothesis:
    • Psychological and behavioral differences between boys and girls become greater during early adolescence
    • This is due to increased socialization pressures to conform to traditional masculine and feminine gender roles
  • Is Early Adolescence a Critical Juncture for Females?
resources for improving the lives of adolescents
Resources for Improving the Lives of Adolescents
  • Gender and Gender Role Development in Adolescence (2004) by Nancy Galambos. In R. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescence. New York: Wiley

An expert on gender development in adolescence, Nancy Galambos, evaluates many different research areas.

  • The Inside Story on Teen Girls (2002) by Karen Zager and Alice Rubenstein Washington, DC: American Psychological Association

Provides insight into the lives of adolescent girls with many excellent recommendations about such topics as identity, puberty, sex, dating, school, peers, and relationships with parents.

resources for improving the lives of adolescents1
Resources for Improving the Lives of Adolescents
  • Real Boys (1999) by William Pollack. New York: Owl Books Pollack examines the ways boys have been reared and concludes that there needs to be a major change in this rearing.
  • YMCA http://www.ymca.net/

The YMCA provides a number of programs for teenage boys. A number of personal health and sports programs are available. The website provides information about the YMCA closest to your location.

resources for improving the lives of adolescents2
Resources for Improving the Lives of Adolescents
  • YWCA http://www.ywca.org/

The YWCA promotes health, sports participation, and fitness for women and girls. Its programs include instruction in health, teen pregnancy prevention, family life education, self-esteem enhancement, parenting, and nutrition. The website provides information about the YWCA closest to your location.

e learning tools
E-LEARNING TOOLS

To help you master the material in this chapter, visit the Online Learning Center for Adolescence, twelfth edition at:

http://www.mhhe.com/santrocka12