second language acquisition l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Second Language Acquisition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Second Language Acquisition

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 48

Second Language Acquisition - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 259 Views
  • Uploaded on

Second Language Acquisition. Developed by Dr. Laurie R. Weaver Dr. Judith A. Marquez University of Houston-Clear Lake. Objectives. The participant will be able to explain expected stages and patterns of language development as related to first and second language acquisition.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Second Language Acquisition' - venice


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
second language acquisition

Second Language Acquisition

Developed by

Dr. Laurie R. Weaver

Dr. Judith A. Marquez

University of Houston-Clear Lake

objectives
Objectives
  • The participant will be able to
    • explain expected stages and patterns of language development as related to first and second language acquisition.
    • explain how first language development affects development of English.
second language acquisition3
Second Language Acquisition

To Think About:

Think about a baby acquiring his first language.

Think about a person acquiring a second

language.

What similarities and differences are there in the

two processes? Discuss your ideas with a

partner then examine the next four slides.

first and second language acquisition
First and Second Language Acquisition

Characteristics L1 Learner L2 Learner

constructs language from

prior conceptual knowledge x x

is an active learner who tests

and revises hypotheses x x

requires interaction x x

uses cognitive strategies

(i.e., overgeneralization) x x

first and second language acquisition5
First and Second Language Acquisition

Characteristics L1 Learner L2 Learner

understands more when input

is modified (caretaker talk,

foreigner talk) x x

develops language in predictable

stages x x

makes developmental errors x x

experiences a silent period x x

first and second language acquisition6
First and Second Language Acquisition

Characteristics L1 Learner L2 Learner

is usually made cognitively x

developed

generally has a greater knowledge

of the world x

generally can learn and apply rules

more easily x

usually has more control over input x

first and second language acquisition7
First and Second Language Acquisition

Characteristics L1 Learner L2 Learner

is familiar with one or more

other cultures x

may have a problem with

attitude/motivation x

is more likely to be inhibited or

anxious x

Adapted from: P. Richard-Amato. (1996). Making it happen: Interaction in the second

language classroom. P.27

age and second language acquisition
Age andSecond Language Acquisition

To Think About:

Is it better to learn a second language when one is young or when one is older? Why?

Discuss your ideas with a partner.

age and second language acquisition9
Age andSecond Language Acquisition

The Critical Period Hypothesis (Eric Lenneberg (1967)

Lenneberg stated that:

L2 is best learned between age 2 and puberty

Ability to learn language is negatively affected by the completion of process of lateralization

age and second language acquisition10
Age andSecond Language Acquisition
  • Critical Period Hypothesis
    • Laterialization is when each side of the brain develops its own specialized functions
    • Young learners use the same part of the brain for learning both languages
    • Older learners use different parts of the brain
age and second language acquisition11
Age and Second Language Acquisition
  • Lenneberg stated that
    • Lateralization is completed by puberty
    • Therefore, an L2 should be learned between age 2 and puberty (according to Lenneberg)
  • More recent research has indicated that lateralization actually is completed by age 5
age and second language acquisition12
Age andSecond Language Acquisition

Therefore, young learners (before age 5) are actually native speakers of both languages

They learn both L1 and L2 the way a native speaker does

J. Lessow-Hurley. (2005). The foundations of dual language instruction.

age and second language acquisition13
Age andSecond Language Acquisition
  • Advantages to being a younger learner
    • More likely to develop a native-like accent
    • Less to learn to be considered proficient
    • More likely to receive comprehensible input
age and second language acquisition14
Age andSecond Language Acquisition
  • Advantages to being an older learner
    • Can consciously use strategies to aid learning
    • Has knowledge from L1 to draw from
    • Has greater control over input
proficiency what is it
Proficiency: What is it?

To Think About:

When is a person proficient in a second language?

How do you know a person is proficient?

Discuss your ideas with a partner.

proficiency
Proficiency
  • Proficiency includes grammatical, sociolinguistic, discourse and strategic competence
  • Age appropriate competence in each of these areas needs to be developed to be considered proficient in a second language
proficiency17
Proficiency
  • Grammatical Competence
    • Mastery of language code

Lexicon (vocabulary)

Word formation rules

Sentence formation rules

Pronunciation rules

Spelling

proficiency18
Proficiency
  • Sociolinguistic Competence
    • Mastery of appropriate language use in different contexts
      • How to speak to a friend
      • How to speak to someone in authority
      • How to speak socially vs. professionally
slide19
Discourse Competence

Mastery of how to combine meanings and forms to create a text in different modes

Examples:

Telephone inquiry

Narrative text

Oral report

proficiency20
Proficiency
  • Discourse Competence

Mastery of how to combine meanings and forms to create a text in different modes

Examples:

Telephone inquiry

Narrative text

Oral report

proficiency21
Proficiency
  • Strategic Competence

Mastery of verbal and non-verbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns in communication

Examples:

How to ask for help

How to rephrase a statement

slide22
Proficiency: How long does it take?

To Think About:

If you wanted to learn another language, how long do you think it would take you to speak and understand that language?

How long would it take you to read and write?

Discuss your ideas with a partner.

slide23

Proficiency: How long does it take?

  • BICS ( Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills)

2 to 3 years

Ability to converse and understand every day discussions

proficiency how long does it take
Proficiency: How long does it take?
  • CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency)

4 to 10 years

Ability to read, write, speak, and listen at an academic level

stages in second language acquisition
Stages in Second Language Acquisition
  • How can you identify a learner’s language acquisition level?
    • Discuss with a partner how the language acquisition level can be determined. In other words, how do you know if a learner is a beginner, an intermediate, or advanced learner of the L2?
stages in second language acquisition26
Stages in Second Language Acquisition
  • Instead of using beginner, intermediate and advanced, a more specific classification system can be used.
  • A learner can be at the preproduction, early speech, speech emergence or intermediate fluency stage
stages in second language acquisition27
Stages in Second Language Acquisition
  • Preproduction/Comprehension Stage Characteristics

Silent period

Can respond non-verbally

Will be able to understand more than they can produce

stages in second language acquisition28
Stages in SecondLanguage Acquisition
  • Preproduction/Comprehension Stage
    • The teacher should NOT force the learner to talk
    • The teacher should ask the learner to draw, point, act out, label
stages in second language acquisition29
Stages in Second Language Acquisition
  • Early Speech Production
  • Characteristics Can understand more than can produce Can produce one or two words at a time Will pick up phrases (He cutted.)
stages in second language acquisition30
Stages in Second Language Acquisition
  • Early Speech Production
    • The teacher should ask the learner yes/no questions
    • The teacher should ask the learner choice questions (Is this a ___ or a ___?)
stages in second language acquisition31
Stages in SecondLanguage Acquisition
  • Speech Emergence

Characteristics

Speaks in phrases

Makes lots of errors

Interlanguage occurs (a mixture of vocabulary and structures from both languages)

stages in second language acquisition32
Stages in Second Language Acquisition
  • Speech Emergence
    • The teacher should ask the learner questions such as What is this? What does ___ do?
stages of second language acquisition
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
  • Intermediate Fluency
  • Characteristics

Appear orally fluent

Errors are same errors native speakers make

Struggle with content area reading and writing.

stages of second language acquisition34
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
  • Intermediate Fluency
    • The teacher should modify higher level questions. For example, instead of asking a student to compare two items, the teacher should ask the student how two items are the same. Then the teacher should ask how they are different.
stages of second language acquisition35
Stages of Second Language Acquisition
  • Select a topic that you teach (for example, fairy tales, plant life, animals, etc.). Then, think of how you would involve a learner at each language proficiency level in the lesson. For example, you might think of questions that you could ask learners at each proficiency level. Or, you might think of an activity in which learners at each proficiency level could participate.
first language development
First Language Development

To Think About:

Do you think the child’s first language is a hindrance or a help in terms of learning a second language? Why?

Discuss your ideas with a partner.

common underlying proficiency transferability theory
Common Underlying Proficiency/Transferability Theory
  • Look at the next slide which illustrates a Dual Iceberg Representation of first and second language development. What does this illustration mean?
slide38

Dual Iceberg Representation

Surface Features Surface Features

of L1 of L2

Common

Underlying

Proficiency

common underlying proficiency transferability theory39
Common Underlying Proficiency/Transferability Theory
  • Many skills and concepts are common or interdependent across languages.
  • A skill or concept learned in one language transfers to another language when the requisite vocabulary is acquired
common underlying proficiency transferability theory40
Common Underlying Proficiency/Transferability Theory
  • For example, a learner only learns to read once. If a learner can read, he/she can read in another language, once the vocabulary is learned.
  • What needs to be explicitly taught in the other language are the features that are different.
what literacy skills transfer
What Literacy Skills Transfer?
  • Directionality
  • Sequencing
  • Ability to distinguish shapes and sounds
  • Knowledge that written symbols correspond to sounds and can be decoded in order and direction
what literacy skills transfer42
What Literacy Skills Transfer?
  • Activation of semantic and syntactic knowledge
  • Knowledge of text structure
  • Learning to use cues to predict meaning
  • Awareness of the variety of purposes for reading and writing
  • Confidence in oneself as a reader and writer
what skills do not transfer
What Skills Do Not Transfer?
  • Critical and Cultural Literacy

(interpretation of text given a specific cultural world view)

From: C. Roberts. (1994). Transferring literacy skills from L1 to L2: From theory to practice. In The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, v. p. 209-221

threshold hypothesis
Threshold Hypothesis
  • The threshold hypothesis states there is a threshold level of ability that needs to be reached in one language in order for a learner to be successful in another language
  • The threshold hypothesis also states that high levels of bilingualism have positive cognitive effects
threshold hypothesis45
Threshold Hypothesis
  • Examine the table on the next slide. What does this table mean?
threshold hypothesis47
Threshold Hypothesis:
  • The better developed the L1, the better developed the L2 can be.
  • High level of proficiency in L1-high level of proficiency in L2 is possible
  • A low level of proficiency in L1-lower level of proficiency in L2
what have you learned
What have you learned?
  • With a partner, list three new things you have learned from this presentation.