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Phonetics: The Sounds of Language. Phonetics and Phonology. Phonetics: The physical manifestation of language in sound waves. How sounds are articulated ( articulatory phonetics) How sounds are perceived (auditory phonetics) Phonology: The mental representation of sounds.

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Phonetics: The Sounds of Language


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phonetics and phonology
Phonetics and Phonology
  • Phonetics: The physical manifestation of language in sound waves.
    • How sounds are articulated (articulatory phonetics)
    • How sounds are perceived (auditory phonetics)
  • Phonology: The mental representation of sounds.
spelling and sounds in english
Spelling and Sounds in English
  • English orthography (writing system) is not accurate in representing sounds:

Did he believe that Caesar could see the people seize the seas?

The silly amoeba stole the key to the machine

  • We need a more accurate representation of sounds: IPA

(Fromkin, Rodman, Hyams p.223)

phonemes
Phonemes
  • The smallest units of language.
  • Every language has its own inventory of linguistic sounds.
  • Phonemes can be divided into 2 types:
  • Consonants
  • Vowels
  • Keep in mind: We are not talking about letters here!
consonants
Consonants
  • How are phonemes produced?
  • Consonants are produced by obstructing the flow of air as it passes from the lungs through the vocal tract.
  • When we describe a consonant, one of the features we use is its place of articulation.
  • The other feature is the manner of articulation.
place of articulation1
Place of articulation
  • Examples of obstructing airflow to produce a consonant:
  • To form the initial [p] sound in “pill”, we put our lips together to shut off the flow of air before releasing it.
  • Sounds that are created by obstructing the flow of air with both lips are called bilabial
  • Compare the [p] sound with the [f] in “fill”. How is it produced?
  • Sounds like [f] are called labiodental
place of articulation2
Place of articulation
  • Going further back in the mouth:
  • Pronounce the “th” sound as in “thin”. How is it produced?
  • The [θ] sound is called interdental (inter= between, dental= teeth)
  • Consider the [s] sound as in “soup”. How is it produced?
  • By putting the tip of the tongue right behind the upper front teeth. This part of the mouth is called alveolar ridge. Sounds like /s/ are called alveolar.
place of articulation3
Place of articulation
  • Compare the [s] sound to the [ʃ] sound in “shell”. Where does the tongue move?
  • Sounds produced in this area are called palatal sounds.
  • The soft area further back is called velum. Sounds produced in this area are called velar sounds. Sounds in this area are produced by touching the heel of the tongue on the velum.
  • Examples of these sounds are: [g] and [k]
place of articulation4
Place of articulation
  • Finally, we arrive at the glottis –the end of the vocal tract and beginning of your throat. There is only one glottal sound: /h/
manner of articulation
Manner of Articulation
  • Describing the features of Consonants.
  • What distinguishes [p] from [b] or [b] from [m]? All three are bilabial sounds…
  • Speech sounds vary in the way the airstream is affected as it flows from the lungs up and out of the mouth and nose.
manner of articulation1
Manner of Articulation
  • Voiced and voiceless sounds
    • When the vocal cords are apart when speaking, air flows freely through the glottis. Sounds produced in this way are voiceless.
    • If the vocal cords are together, the airstream forces its way through and causes them to vibrate
  • Try it out: put your hand to

your throat and produce a [z]

sound as in “buzz”. Now do the

same with [s] as in “bus”.

voiced and voiceless sounds
Voiced and Voiceless sounds
  • The distinction is very important in English as it may change the meaning of the word:
  • rope/robe fate/fade rack/rag
  • choke/joke
voiced and voiceless sounds1
Voiced and Voiceless sounds
  • Quick exercise:

Of the sounds discussed so far, which are voiced and which are voiceless. Pronounce them with your hand at your throat.

[p] [s] [m] [tʃ] [h] [θ] [l] [t] [d]

[z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [dʒ] [b]

nasal and oral sounds
Nasal and Oral sounds
  • [b] and [p] sounds are distinguished as voiced/voiceless. But how is [b] different from [m]?
  • When the uvular blocks the airway through the nose, the sound is oral. When the uvular is not raised, air escapes through the nose and the mouth. This is called a nasal sound.
  • If [m] is a nasal, what other nasals can you identify?
  • [m] [n] [ŋ]

ew

stops and fricatives
Stops and Fricatives
  • To produce the [t] sound, you place the tongue on the alveolar ridge and obstruct the flow of air. The [s] sound is produced at the same place of articulation. What is different about them?
  • Test for yourself: produce the sounds and observe what is happening to the airflow.
  • When the airflow is completely stopped, the sound is a stop.
  • When the airflow is only partially stopped, it’s a fricative.
voiced and voiceless sounds2
Voiced and Voiceless sounds
  • Quick exercise:

Of the sounds discussed so far, which are stops and which are fricatives? Pronounce each and decide.

[p] [s] [θ] [t] [d] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [k]

affricates liquids and glides
Affricates,Liquids, and Glides
  • Affricates are produced by a stop which is followed immediately by gradual release of air. Stop + fricative = affricate
    • There are only two: [tʃ] and [dʒ]
  • Liquids
    • During the production of the sounds [l] and [r], there is no real obstruction of the airflow that causes friction. Hence, these sounds are not stops, fricatives or affricates. They are called liquids
  • Glides
    • Are not causing significant obstruction and are always followed by vowels.
    • [j] and [w]
ipa chart
IPA chart

Consonants

vowels
Vowels
  • Vowel Qualities
  • The placement of the body of the tongue:
    • Vertical: high – mid – low
    • Horizontal: front – central – back
  • The shape of the lips:
    • Rounded – Unrounded
  • The degree of the vocal tract contraction:
    • Tense – Lax
vowel qualities tongue height
Vowel Qualities: Tongue Height
  • Experiment:
  • Say the words “meet” and “mat”. What happens to your jaw?
  • Now say the word “mate” in between.
vowel qualities frontness
Vowel Qualities: Frontness
  • Frontness is determining where the tongue is positioned horizontally.
  • Say the words hack [hæk] and hah in sequence: “hack, hah, hack, hah, hack, hah.
  • You should be able to observe the tongue movement.
  • front vowels: [i] [ɪ] [e] [ɛ] [æ]
  • Central vowels: [ə] [ʌ]
  • back vowels: [u] [o] [ɔ] [a] [ʊ]
vowel qualities lip rounding
Vowel Qualities: Lip Rounding
  • Vowels differ in roundness of the lips.
vowel qualities tenseness
Vowel Qualities: Tenseness
  • In English, there are tense and lax vowels
  • Compare “beat” and “bit”. Both sounds are high, front vowels, but they differ in tenseness of muscles in the vocal tract.
diphthongs
Diphthongs
  • The previously discussed vowels are also called monophthongs
  • Diphthongs are a combination of 2 vowel sounds.
  • In English, there are 3 (main) diphthongs.
  • Consider following words:
  • kite bout boy
  • [aj] [aw] [ɔj]
ipa chart1
IPA chart

Consonants

Diphthongs

Vowels

reading ipa
Reading IPA
  • Quick exercise:

Answer following questions

  • /wær du dɒktərswərk?/
  • /wʌtkʌlərɪzðəskai?/
  • /wʌtɪzθritaɪmzθri?/
  • /wærɪzmɪstərijənsɔfɪs?/
  • /hɔspɪtəl/ or /haspətəl/
  • /blu/
  • /najn/
introduction to phonology

Introduction to Phonology

The mental representation of sounds

what is phonology
What is Phonology?
  • Phonology is concerned with the sound structure/patterns of languages.
  • What syntax is for grammar, phonology is for phonetics.
  • Knowledge of phonology determines how we pronounce morphemes depending on their context. Just as morphology has rules, phonology has its own rules.
phonetics vs phonology
Phonetics vs. Phonology
  • both deal with speech sounds
  • phonetics: deals with physical properties of speech sounds
  • phonology: deals with the organization of speech sounds in a particular language
    • Which sounds are predictable? Which are unpredictable?
    • What context allows us to predict the occurrence of certain sounds?
    • Which sounds affect the meaning of words?
same sound or different sound
Same sound or different sound?
  • Within a given language, some sounds are considered to be the same sound, even though they are phonetically distinct.
same sound or different sound1
Same sound or different sound?
  • Within a given language, some sounds are considered to be the same sound, even though they are phonetically distinct.
    • Same or different?
    • pool [pul] spool [spul]
same sound or different sound2
Same sound or different sound?
  • Within a given language, some sounds are considered to be the same sound, even though they are phonetically distinct.
    • Same or different?
    • pool [phul] spool [spul]
      • phonetically different (aspirated vs. unaspirated)
      • native speakers perceive the same sound
same same but different
Same same but different
  • mitt, Tim, metal, mitten
    • phonetically different
    • all perceived as ‘t’ by English speakers

Allophone:

  • one of a set of non-distinctive realizations of the same phoneme.
phonemes and allophones
Phonemes and Allophones
  • Phoneme:
    • class of speech sounds judged by native speakers to be the same sound.
    • a mental entity
    • E.g., The /t/ sounds in mitt, Tim, metal, mitten corresponds to one phoneme.
phonemes and allophones1
Phonemes and Allophones
  • Allophone:
    • one of a set of non-distinctive realizations of the same phoneme.
    • Corresponds to something physical produced by a speaker
    • E.g., [th] and [t] are an allophone of /t/.
    • [p] and [ph] are allophones of the phoneme /p/.