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Fluid lens. Report Reporter : Bondarenko Alexander. Problem. Develop a fluid lens system with adjustable focus. Investigate the quality and possible applications of your system. Definition of a fluid lens.

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fluid lens

Fluid lens

Report

Reporter: Bondarenko Alexander

problem
Problem

Develop a fluid lens system with adjustable focus. Investigate the quality and possible applications of your system

definition of a fluid lens
Definition of a fluid lens

A fluid optical lens is a transparent fluid, bounded by 2 curved surfaces with adjustable curvature.

slide4
Aims
  • to examine possible variants of creating fluid lenses;
  • to study the quality of an obtained image;
  • to examine a possibility of a practical use;
  • to use a fluid lens in a basic optical system;
  • to prove the equivalence of fluid and glass lenses.
variants of fluid lenses
Variants of fluid lenses
  • a drop on a transparent surface;
  • a boundary film between two immiscible fluids;
  • a rotating fluid;
  • fluid between two elastic films.
variants of lenses
Variants of lenses

A drop on a unwettable and wettable surface. Collecting lens

Capillary phenomenon. Divergent lens

a drop on a transparent surface1
A drop on a transparent surface

Disadvantages:

  • a limited radius of curvature;
  • a lens must be in a horizontal position;
  • a lens’ form depends on surface’sproperties;
  • an absence of vibration, a constancy of temperature are required.
a boundary film between two immiscible fluids1
A boundary film between two immiscible fluids

Disadvantages:

  • a limited radius of curvature;
  • a lens must be in a horizontal position;
  • a lens’ form depends on surface’s properties;
  • an absence of vibration, a constancy of temperature is required.
  • probability of spreading behavior of fluids (depends on surface tension)
variety of lenses
Variety of lenses

1 2 3 4

  • flat-concave
  • biconcave
  • concave-convex (positive meniscus)
  • convex-concave (negative meniscus)
rotating fluid2
Rotating fluid

Disadvantages:

  • a lens must be in a horizontal position;
  • an absence of vibration, a constancy of temperature are required.

Singularity:

  • a cusp form.
variety of lenses1
Variety of lenses

1 2 3 4 5 6

  • concave-convex (positivemeniscus)
  • flat-concave
  • convex-concave (negativemeniscus)
  • biconvex
  • biconcave
  • flat-convex
an influence of films
An influence of films

d=130 м

f= 0,17 м

t heoretical calculation
Theoretical calculation

,wheren – index of lens;

R1, R2 – curved surfaces’ radiuses;

d – lens’ depth.

,wherer – radius of hole (segment);

h – middle ordinate.

c onvergence of theory and practice
Convergence of theory and practice

The difference between practice and theory results is nearly 2-7%

fluid between two elastic films2
Fluid between two elastic films

Disadvantage:

  • high-qualityfilms are required;

Advantage:

  • Little aberrations in different positions (in compare with other variants)
resume
Resume
  • variants of fluid lenses and methods of getting them have been discovered;
  • a fluid lens have been used in a usual projector;
  • the equivalence of the image produced by a fluid and a glass lens has been proved.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • fluid lenses are identical to usual glass lenses;
  • the quality of image is rather good. It will be better if a high-quality films are used;
  • fluid optical systems are identical to glass optical systems.
contents
Main slides:

Главная

Условие задачи

Определение линзы

Цели

Варианты жидких линз

Капля на прозрачной поверхности

Капля… Виды линз

Капля... Недостатки

Граница раздела двух жидкостей

Граница… Недостатки

Вращающаяся жидкость. Получение

Вращающаяся жидкость. Виды линз

Вращающаяся жидкость. Демо

Вращающаяся жидкость. Фото

Вращающаяся жидкость. Фото 2

Вращающаяся жидкость. Особенности

Две плёнки… Первая сборка

Две плёнки, между которыми жидкость

Две плёнки.Демо

Две плёнки… Влияние плёнки

Две плёнки… Теоретический расчёт

Сходимость теории и практики

Две плёнки.Недостатки и преимущества

Projector. Scheme

Projector. Installation

Focusing

Итоги

Выводы

Спасибо за внимание!

Additionalslides:

Comparing with glasses

A boundary film between two immiscible fluids. Installation

Rotation fluid. Installation

A cusp form

Focal distance measurement

A fluid between two elastic films. First model

Измерение высоты сегмента

Varioptic Lenses

Contents
measurement procedure of focal length
Measurement procedure of focal length

A focusing of the image of the object, which is settling down at a great distance, in comparison with a focal length of the lens. The distance between the image of the object will settle down in a focus of the lens.

t heoretical calculation2
Theoretical calculation

, wheren0 – refraction index of surrounding environment;

n – refraction index of drop’s material;

R1и R2 – curved surfaces’ radiuses.

t heoretical calculation4
Theoretical calculation

, where n0 – refraction index of surrounding environment;

n – refraction index of drop’s material;

R1 и R2 – curved surfaces’ radiuses.

comparing with glasses
Comparing with glasses

Glasses’ focal power is 2,5 dioptres

a cusp form
A cusp form

, где ω – скорость вращения жидкости;

g – ускорение свободного падения.

focal distance measurement
Focal distance measurement

There are 3 methods of focal distance measurement:

  • определениерасстояния от линзы до изображения, когда изображение полностью расплывается;
  • объект, расположен на двойном фокусном расстоянии, равное по размеру изображение образуется на фокусном расстоянии;
  • фокусировка изображения объекта, располагающегося на большом расстоянии, по сравнению с фокусным расстоянием линзы;
a list of used literature
A list of used literature
  • Р.Г. Геворкян «Курс физики»
  • И.В. Савельев «Курс общей физики. Том 2»
  • О.Ф. Карабдин «Физика. Справочные материалы»
  • Свободная интернет-энциклопедия Википедия(www.ru.wikipedia.org)
  • www.varioptic.com