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Vegetarian Fitness Competitor A Case Study, Research & Diet Report. Sara Hoverson, Danielle Selden, Amber Leon, Courtney Puidk. Our Fitness Competitor. 30 yr old female Vegetarian Fitness & figure categories Swimsuit round Routine round. Our Fitness Competitor. 30 yr old female 5’3”

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vegetarian fitness competitor a case study research diet report

Vegetarian Fitness CompetitorA Case Study, Research & Diet Report

Sara Hoverson, Danielle Selden, Amber Leon, Courtney Puidk

our fitness competitor
Our Fitness Competitor
  • 30 yr old female
  • Vegetarian
  • Fitness & figure categories
    • Swimsuit round
    • Routine round
our fitness competitor1
Our Fitness Competitor
  • 30 yr old female
  • 5’3”
  • 120lbs
  • 18% BF
  • No health concerns
  • Current training schedule
    • Weights 5x per week
    • 30-45 minutes moderated intensity cardio or 30 minute high intensity interval training 1-2x per week
training goals
Training Goals
  • Leaning down to 8% body fat while maintaining her lean body mass
  • Maintaining ability to perform a 2min high intensity routine that incorporates strength, flexibility, and gymnastics
what is fitness
What is fitness?
  • Division of body building
  • Categories
    • Bikini
    • Fitness
    • Figure
    • Physique
    • Bodybuilding
metabolic demands
Metabolic Demands
  • Dichotomy in training seasons and phases
  • Building muscle mass
    • Anaerobic stress on muscles repeatedly with high intensity resistance training and free weights
    • Minimal (if any) aerobic cardiovascular activity
    • Extra calorie consumption
  • Reduction in body fat for increased muscle definition visibility
    • Reduction in total calorie consumption
    • Aerobic exercise added
nutritional requirements in off season
Nutritional Requirements in Off-Season
  • Frequent meals spaced 3 hrs apart
    • 6-7 meals throughout the day
    • Calories are converted to muscle, not fat
  • Less fat, more protein, and more carbohydrates needed when compared to USDA recommendations for non-athletes
    • 1.2-1.7g/kg PRO per day
    • 15-25% kcal from healthy fats
    • 55-60% kcal from complex CHO
nutritional requirements in season
Nutritional Requirements In-Season
  • Calories cut, carbohydrate intake decreases significantly, while protein and fat intake increase
    • Kcal range = 12-16kg per pound of body weight
    • 10-30% kcal from complex CHO
    • 30-45% kcal from PRO
    • 25-60% kcal from FAT
nutritional requirements for show day
Nutritional Requirements for Show Day
  • One to two days before a show
    • Slow carbohydrate load to achieve fuller muscle pump
    • Alternate protein and fat meals
  • Day of competition
    • Avoid slow digestion food intake by mainly eating carbohydrates with protein and fat added depending on the show schedule; one versus two day events
research
Research
  • Redman et al studied
  • Subjects: 46 healthy non-obese men and women
  • Methods: Randomized into 4 groups
    • Control: 30%kcal fat, 15%kcal protein, and 55%kcal carbohydrates
    • calorie restricted diets (CR): 25%  baseline E requirements
    • calorie restricted (CR + EX) diets plus exercise: diet 12.5% lower with a 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through structured aerobic exercise
    • low calorie diets (LCD): low calorie diet consisting of 890kcal/day to achieve a 15% reduction in body mass followed by weight maintenance
  • Results: BW and BF reductions in all 3 intervention groups
    • CR and CR +EX same degree of loss.
    • Visceral fat reduced by ~30% in CR + EX and CR group but the
  • LCD greatest loss of visceral fat.
  • Strategic calorie reductions such as what was demonstrated in this study are often used during the second phase of training.
research1
Research
  • Weigle et al
  • Subjects: 19 healthy participants
  • Methods:
    • Weight maintenance diet (15% protein, 35% fat, and 50%) for 2 weeks,
    • Isocaloric diet (30% protein, 20% fat, and 50% carbohydrate) for 2 weeks
    • Ad libitum diet (30% protein, 20% fat, and 50% carbohydrate) for 12 weeks
  • Results:
    • Isocaloric phase 15% increase in energy from protein,
      • maintenance of stable body weight and reported decreased hunger and increased satiety
      • spontaneous decreased caloric intake of 494 ±74kcal/d
    • Conclusion: Increased protein intakes promote negative energy balance and loss of body fat via two mechanisms;
      • Anorexic effect of protein and
      • Proteins ability to produce greater satiety than other macronutrients.
research2
Research
  • Hyerang et al
  • Subjects: 8 elite Korean bodybuilders
  • Methods:
    • Athletes completed three-day food records (with the inclusion of supplements)
    • Diets analyzed by the same dietician using Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program version 3.0.
      • 4.3-1.2 g/kg BW/day Pro and 5,621.7-1,354.7 kcal/day calories
      • Vitamins and minerals (potassium and calcium esp) above RDA
  • Results:
    • Serum creatine and potassium, and urinary nitrogen and creatine- higher than the normal reference ranges while
    • Urinary calcium and phosphorous- border of upper limit of the reference range
    • No evidence of metabolic acidosis
    • Suggests that acid-base homeostasis may be retained in high protein diets with adequate supplementation
research3
Research
  • Civitarese et al
  • Subjects: 7 untrained healthy men
  • Methods: Single 2hr bout of moderate-intensity exercise with or without glucose ingestion
    • 2 trials separated by 1 week
    • Test days: percutaneous muscle biopsy taken from the vastuslateralis muscle after an overnight fast.
  • First trial: 1.4g/kg body weight of glucose solution
    • one-hour bed rest before exercising at 50% maximal power output for two hours.
    • Blood samples taken and an additional 0.35% glucose solution
    • Second muscle biopsy immediately at cessation followed by 2 more at 1 &4 hrs post exercise.
  • Second trial same protocol in fasted state before, during, and after exercise
    • lemon flavored water solution.
  • Results:
    • Decrease in blood glucose concentration during the faseted state relative to the fed state (P<0.01), an
    • Increase in plasma free fatty acid concentration during exercise in the fasted state and unchanged after glucose (P< 0.01)
    • Lower RQ in fasted vs glucose fed state (P< 0.01).
    • 37 ± 9% higher fat oxidation in the fasted state
research4
Research
  • Burke at el.
  • Subjects: 18 vegetarians (V) and 24 non-vegetarians (NV)
    • 19-55 y/o
  • Methods: 8 weeks of creatine supplementation and resistance training
    • V + creatine,
    • V + placebo,
    • NV + creatine,
    • NV + placebo.
    • Muscle biopsies taken, body composition assessed (DXA), and strength assessed using press machines.
  • Results: lacto-ovo-vegetarians have lower resting intramuscular concentrations of total creatine as compared with omnivorous diet.
  • Study suggests creatine supplementation in vegetarian diets may lead to a greater phosphocreatine, total creatine, and a greater increase in lean tissue mass and therefore total work output.
nutrition assessment
Nutrition Assessment
  • RMR (Mifflin St. Jeor) = 1287kcal/day
  • TEE (AF 1.8) = 2333kcal/day
  • Pre-contest breakdown (10 wks from first show)
    • 1500kcal/day
  • Non-Resistance training days
    • 45% PRO
    • 15% CHO
    • 40% FAT
  • Resistance training days
    • 40% PRO
    • 30% CHO
    • 30% FAT
resistance day training diet 1500kcal
Resistance Day Training Diet1500kcal
  • Meal #1 – 1/3 cup cooked oats with ½ cup mixed berries and dry roasted pumpkin seeds, 5oz wt of boiled eggs with 1 cup steamed kale with iodized salt
  • Meal #2 – Southwestern tofu with: 5oz sautéed tofu with cayenne and cumin, ¼ cup black beans, ½ cup roasted veg to include red onion, poblano peppers, red bell pepper and cilantro, and 1 cup roasted green beans and tomatillos
  • Meal #3 – Smoothie with 2oz scoop protein powder, 1 cup spinach, ½ cup roasted carrots
  • Meal #4 – 5 oz tempeh, with 1/2 cup roasted Brussels sprouts with 1oz roasted sweet potatoes and red onion all tossed with lemon juice and 1/2 T lavender enfused olive oil
  • Meal #5 – 5oz serving of a veggie burger with slice of cheddar cheese, served under 1 cup steamed asparagus/broccoli mixture and 1 cup zucchini and summer squash
non resistance training day diet 1500kcal
Non-Resistance Training Day Diet1500kcal
  • Meal #1- smoothie with 1 cup spinach, ¼ cup blackberries, 2 scoops soy protein powder, and 1 T almond butter
  • Meal #2- 1 cup arugula and watercress salad with 6oz tofu, and ½ cup radicchio/radish/leek mixture with 1 t rice wine vinegar
  • Meal #3-6 oz sautéed tempeh with 1 cup Chinese cabbage and broccoli rabe with ½ t iodized salt
  • ¼ cup grapefruit pieces
  • Meal #4-6oz poached eggs served over ½ cup roasted asparagus and ½ cup roasted cherry tomatoes all topped with 1oz avocado
  • Meal #5 – tofu/vegetable soup – 1 cup vegetable broth with 6oz braised tofu, 1 cup braised green beans, green onions, celery, and kale, and 1 cup summer squash and purple asparagus all cooked with salt and pepper topped with pumpkin seeds
training plan
Training Plan
  • Monday: Back and Bi’s + 1-2hrs gymnastics/routine practice
  • Tuesday: Legs
  • Wednesday: 45 minutes low-moderate intensity cardio + light routine practice
  • Thursday: 30-40 minutes low-moderate intensity cardio + 1-2hrs gymnastics/routine practice
  • Friday: Chest/Shoulders/Tri’s + 30 minutes low-moderate intensity cardio
  • Saturday: 45 minutes metabolic circuit training
  • Sunday: Rest or 30 minutes low intensity cardio
  • *Monday, Tuesday, and Friday follow resistance training plan menu.
  • *Wednesday, Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday follow non-resistance training plan menu.
  • **Cardio is kept low at this point to maintain lean body mass. Adjustments to workouts will be made accordingly as show approaches and with weekly physique assessments.
show day diet
Show Day Diet
  • Meal #1: 1 cup cream of rice + drizzle of honey + 1 oz gummy bears
  • Meal #2: 4 oz sweet potatoes
  • Meal #3: if this is close to stage (routine) time 1 oz gummy bears or sugary low fat candy
  • Meal #4: (if needed before two-piece round): 1 small orange
  • Meal #5: (post judging) 4 oz protein + 1 tablespoon oil (coconut or olive oil)
  • Meal #6 (~2hrs after meal #5): ½ white rice or 4 oz sweet potatoes
  • Meal #7 (night show before routine): 1 small orange
  • Meal #8 (if needed before two-piece round) ~1 oz sugary low fat candy
  • Meal # 9: your choice! Enjoy!!
conclusions
Conclusions
  • In addition to eating whole foods, supplementation to ensure adequate B12, zinc, iodine, iron, and vitamin C (to increase iron bioavailability) will support the overall health of a vegetarian athlete. Further support and enhanced training supplementation with creatine and BCAA will benefit strength/physique athletes.
references
References

1. Wikipedia. Fitness and Figure Competition. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fitness_and_figure_competition. Last updated May 11, 2012. Accessed June 1, 2012.

2. Benardot, D. Advanced Sports Nutrition. 2nd Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Versa Press; 2012: 265-268.

3. Clark, N. Nancy Clark’s Sports Nutrition Guidebook. 4th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2008: 134-135

4. Wikipedia. Amenorrhea. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amenorrhea. Accessed June 2, 2012.

5. Quah V Y, Poh K B, Ng O L, Noor I M. The female athlete triad amoung elite Malaysian athletes: prevalence and association factors. Asia Pac J ClinNutr. 2009; 18:2:200-208

6. Gabel, K A. Special Nutritional Concerns for the Female Athlete. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2006; 5:187-191.

7. Fuhrman J, Ferreri D. M. Fueling the Vegetarian (Vegan) Athlete. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2010; 9:4:233-241.

8. Redman L M, Velduis J D, Rood J, Smith S R, Williamson D, Racussin E. The effect of calorie restriction interventions on growth hormone secretion in nonobese men and women. Aging cell. 2010; 9: 32-9

references1

References

Continued...

9. Weigle D S, Breen P A, Matthys C C, Callahan H S, Meeuws K E, Burden V R, Purnell J Q. A high protein diet induces sustained reductions in appitite, ad libitum calorie intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Am J ClinNutr. 2005; 82:41-8

10. Kreiger J W, Sitren H S, Daniels M J, Langkamp-Henken B. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a mega-regression. Am J ClinNutr. 2006; 83:260-74

11. Hyerang K, Saningun L, Choue R. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2011; 8:10:1-6

12. Roepstorff C, Halberg N, Hillig T, Saha A K, Ruderman N B, Wojtaszewski F P J, Richter E A, Kiens B. Malonyl-CoA and carnitine in regulation of fat oxidation in human skeletal muscle during exercise. Am J Physicol Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2005; 288:E133-E142.

13. Crivitarese A E, Hesselink M K, Russel A P, Ravussin E, Schrauwen P. Glucose ingestion during exercise blunts exercise-induced gene expression of skeletal muscle fat oxidative genes. Am J physiolEndocrinolMetab. 2005;289:E1023-E1029

more references continued
More references continued....

14. Negro M, Giardina S, Marzani B, Marzatico F. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation does not enhance athletic performance but affects muscle recovery and the immune system. J sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008;48:347-51.

15. Burke D G, Chilibeck P D, Parise G, Candow D G, Mahoney D, Tarnopolsky M. Effect of Creatine and Weight training on Muscle Creatine and Performance in Vegetarians. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2003; 35:11:1946-1955.