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Chapter 5 - New York in the 1920s. Recordings, Radio, Movies. advances in recording technology electrical recording replaces acoustical recording reduced prices on records Radio technical advances radio networks (NBC, CBS) a new, larger listening audience.

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recordings radio movies
Recordings, Radio, Movies
  • advances in recording technology
    • electrical recording replaces acoustical recording
    • reduced prices on records
  • Radio
    • technical advances
    • radio networks (NBC, CBS)
      • a new, larger listening audience.
      • breaking down regional boundaries, increasing awareness of musicians.
  • Movies
prohibition
Prohibition
  • 1920
  • illegal to manufacture, transport, sell
  • (legal to purchase and/or drink)
  • organized crime
  • repealed in 1932
dance bands
Dance Bands
  • Popular music in the 1920s:
    • Tin Pan Alley
    • ragtime.
    • vaudeville.
    • jazz.
  • Larger ensembles with a variety of instruments began to incorporate jazz in various ways.
paul whiteman
Paul Whiteman.
  • sought to “make a lady out of jazz.”
  • “An Experiment in Modern Music” (1924)
    • Aeolian Hall in New York.
    • “Rhapsody in Blue.”
    • “King of Jazz” – originator of “symphonic jazz”
fletcher henderson
Fletcher Henderson
  • Born into middle-class family, studied music with his mother.
  • Received a degree in chemistry and mathematics at Atlanta University, moved to New York in 1920 to establish career as a chemist.
  • Song demonstrator for the Pace-Handy Music Co.
  • Music director for Black Swan.
  • Offered a position at the Roseland Ballroom
  • Innovations:
    • Initially Henderson's band was primarily a dance band.
    • Brought in Louis Armstrong as a "jazz specialist" in 1924.
    • Don Redman, the band's music director until 1927, established a basic format for big band arrangements:
      • Sectional writing; interplay of reeds and brass.
      • Use of call-and-response.
      • Solo sections interspersed between arranged sections.
      • good soloists and the ability to make written arrangements swing.
      • a primary model for big bands until the mid-1930's.
fletcher henderson cont d
Fletcher Henderson (cont’d)
  • Henderson's band broke up several times due to poor management.
  • in 1934 sold most of his best arrangements to Benny Goodman.
  • a full-time staff arranger for Goodman from 1939-1941.
  • Impediments to greater success:
    • Passive temperament.
    • Lack of understanding of salesmanship and promotion.
    • Inability to control or keep players, who were frequently lured away by other bandleaders.
harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • period from end of WWI to about the middle of the Depression.
  • as a literary movement, contributions of African American writers to poetry, fiction, drama, and essay.
    • notion of "twoness“ or divided awareness of identity - "One ever feels his two-ness - an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled stirrings: two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.“ (W.E.B. Du Bois, a founder of NAACP and author of The Souls of Black Folks (1903).
    • Common themes:
      • alienation.
      • marginality.
      • use of folk material, blues tradition,
      • problems of writing for an elite audience.