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MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

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MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

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  1. MEDICAL INSTRUMENTS M u 1

  2. LIST • ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE • AIR WAY • AMBU BAG • FOLEYs CATHETER • NASOGASTRIC TUBE • INTRAVENOUS CANNULA • LUMBER PUNCTURE NEEDLE • LIVER BIOPSY NEEDLE

  3. LARYNGOSCOPE • CHEST TUBE • BONE MARROW NEEDLE • ESR TUBE • OPHTHALMOSCOPE

  4. ENDOTRACHEAL TUBEETT

  5. INDICATIONS Protection of airway Removal of secretions Mechanical ventilation Cardio pulmonary resuscitation During general anesthesia • CONTRAINDICATIONS Cervical spine fracture

  6. AIR WAY

  7. FEATURES It is a curved instrument The proximal end has a collar These are available in all sizes to be used in infants and children • INDICATIONS Use to keep airway patent in unconscious patients Helps to prevent backward falling of the tongue

  8. Helps to prevent tongue bite in patients with convulsions Helps removal of secretions from the mouth It is used in patients during general anesthesia It is used in patients during post anesthesia recovery period

  9. NASOGASTRIC TUBE

  10. FEATURES Soft plastic tube It is available in different diameters measured in french unitsa It has marking at 18,22,26,and 30 inches There are two to three holes few mm proximal to tip along the lateral side

  11. INDICATIONS Diagnostic Intragastric bleed Pyloric stenosis Collection of gastric lavage for AFB Achlorhydia Therapeutic Gastric lavage in cases of poisoning Decompression in cases of acute pan_ creatitis , acute peritonitis , intestinal obstruction and gastric surgery

  12. Feeding Unconscious patient In cases of dysphagia: stricture esophagus tumour esophagus bulbar palsy • CONTRAINDICATIONS Corrosive poisoning • COMPLICATIONS Stricture esophagus

  13. FOLEY CATHETER

  14. FOLEY CATHETER • FEATURES Soft tube of latex Has a rounded tip and two holes proximal to the tip The size is measured in french unit Proximal end may have two or three channels in two or three way cathter respectively

  15. INDICATIONS Acute retention of urine Chronic retention of urine with overflow In cases of neurogenic bladder In surgery involving bladder and prostrate In all perineal operations In management of incomplete rupture of urethra Intra vesical chemotherapy To carry out urethrography To monitor urine output

  16. CONTRAINDICATIONS Blood at meatus Acute urethritis COMPLICATIONS Blockade Cathter leak Bacteriuria

  17. INTRAVENOUS CANNULA

  18. FEATURES PARTS Cannula Stylet Wings Lock The cannulas are color coded for different sizes Grey:14 G Orange: 16G Green:18G Pink:20G Blue:22G Yellow:24G

  19. IV cannulas are used to cannulate the veins for intravenous injections, infusions and transfusions • Adequate aseptic measures are taken before the cannulas are inserted

  20. OPHTHALMOSCOPE

  21. FEATURES Handle System of lenses Illuminating part It is a self illuminating type of direct ophthalmoscope It is used to examine the fundus of the eye Following structures are seen: Optic disc Macula lutea Retinal vessels

  22. To examine the right eye of the patient instrument is held in the right hand and the examiner looks with the right eye keeping it as close to the patient as possible Various parts of the ratina can be visualised by changing the direction of the light beam

  23. LARYNGOSCOPE

  24. FEATURES It is a metallic instrument used for visualization of larynx and vocal cords PARTS: Main body handle Blade Blades are made of curved steel and have blunt distal end • USES: To perform direct laryngoscopy To intubate the patient with ETT To clean the upper respiratory tract for removal of blood or secretions

  25. LP NEEDLE LUMBER PUNCTURE NEEDLE

  26. INDICATIONS A. DIAGNOSTIC Meningitis and its etiology in some cases. Subarachnoid haemorrhage Encephalitis Guillain – Barre Syndrome Multiple Sclerosis Neurosyphilis For Myelography For Pneumoencephalography Unexplained Coma Cases of pyrexia of unknown origin.

  27. B. THERAPEUTIC Intrathecal administration of drugs: Methotrexate Certain immunoglobulins C. ANESTHESIA Spinal anesthesia • CONTRAINDICATIONS Raised ICP as indicated by papilledema Suspicion of tumouror mass lesin of brain or spinal cord Shock Local sepsis Bleeding disorder e.g thrombocytopenia Gross spinal needle

  28. COMPLICATIONS Herniation of cerebellar tonsils through foramen magnum Headache Hypotension Chronic adhesive arachdonitis

  29. LIVER BIOPSY NEEDLE • INDICATIONS Cirrhosis Chronic active hepatitis Unexplained hepatomegaly Infiltrative disorders Haemochromatosis • CONTRAINDICATIONS Gross ascities Prolonged PT Thrombocytopenia Extrahepatic cholestasis

  30. COMPLICATIONS Intraperitonial bleed Biliary peritonitis Haemobilia Septicemia

  31. CHEST DRAINCHEST TUBE

  32. PARTS It’s a plastic tube about 30 _ 50 cm long It is avilable in various diameters measurable in french unit Commonly used sizes are 28 to 32 fr It’s a thick and stiff tube It has a rounded, blunt end It has 2_3 holes on the side at distal end INDICATIONS To drain intrapleural cavity Haemothorax Pneumothorax

  33. Haemopneumothorax Pyothorax Pleural effusion After thoracotomy After the diaphragm injuries and repair

  34. BONE MARROW BIOPSY NEEDLE

  35. BONE MARROW ASPIRATION BIOPSY NEEDLE

  36. TREPHINE BIOPSY NEEDLE

  37. INDICATIONS DIAGNOSTIC: Megaloblastic anemia Diamorphic anemia Iron defeciency anemia Sideroblastic anemia Pancytopenia Leukemia Multiple myeloma Chronic malaria P.U.O PROGNOSTIC: Aplastic anemia Agranulocytosis

  38. SITE Posterior iliac crest First piece of body of sternum Lumber spinous process Medial aspect of the upper end of the tibia CONTRAINDICATIONS Derranged coagulation profile Local sepsis at site of biopsy

  39. E.S.R TUBEERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE

  40. E.S.R TUBE WITH STAND

  41. E.S.R is the time taken by the blood corpuscles to settle down in a glass tubeof uniform bore when it is kept undisturbed and uncoagulated This is due to The force of gravity The phenomenon of rouleaux formation It is graded in millimeters from 0 at the upper end an d200 at the lower end Tube is fitted in the stand and left undisturbed for 1 hour Reading is taken after 1 hour Normal value :

  42. Male upto 7 mm Female upto 10 mm RAISED E.S.R: Tuberculosis Malignancy Multiple myeloma Anemia Pregnancy Rheumatoid arthritis Connective tissue disorder DECREASED E.S.R Dehydration CCF Polycythemia

  43. AMBO BAG