Alkyl Halides. Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination. Nomenclature of Alkyl Halides. Name halogen as substituent on alkane or cylcoalkane. Learn common names for some of the simple structures. e.g. chloroform, methylene chloride.
Nucleophilic Substitution and Elimination
Do problem 6-1, 6-2 and 6-3 of the text.
See pages 235-236 of the text. Do problems 6-8 and 6-9.
R—LG + Nuc: R—Nuc + LG:
2. Identify nucleophilic electrons in nucleophile
3. Identify leaving group in substrate
4. Draw substrate without LG but with bond
5. Add Nuc to bond where LG used to be
SN2 - methyl, 1º & unhindered 2º
SN1 - 3º, hindered 2º
You should know how to represent this
mechanism in an energy diagram!!
You must be able to represent this on an energy diagram!
Allylic 3° >> 3° allylic 2° > 2° allylic 1° >> 1° > Me Carbocations are stabilized by alkyl groups (through hyperconjugation and the inductive effect) and by resonance.
*must have neutral to acidic conditions to form carbocation
R2C=CR2 > R2C=CHR > RHC=CHR > R2C=CH2 > RHC=CH2
Decreasing alkene stability