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The Cold War (1945-1992) Chapter 18. What is a “Cold War”. Definition : The Cold War ( 1945-1992) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between communist and democratic nations. Are you a commie?

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The Cold War (1945-1992) Chapter 18

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    1. The Cold War (1945-1992)Chapter 18

    2. What is a “Cold War” Definition: The Cold War (1945-1992) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War IIbetween communist and democratic nations. Are you a commie?

    3. Could Nuclear War Happen? Duck and Cover TV Warning Attack Scene

    4. USA vs USSR-Political Democracy government by people representative direct voting multi party system Totalitarianism government one/few “total” control 1 party system

    5. USA vs USSR-Economic Capitalism Laissez-Faire government hands off private ownership economic classes Market Economy Socialism government ownership classless society equality of people Command Economy

    6. USA vs USSR-Social Individualism individual > group do your own thing what’s best for you Collectivism group > individual one for all, all for one what’s best for group

    7. US Reaction-United Nations Creation of United Nations (1945-46) Goal: International peace keeping organization Success or Failure? Current Leader: Ban Ki-moon

    8. Structure of UN General Assembly: • Every country has an ambassador • Each country gets 1 vote (193 members currently) • • Power to discuss and recommend action • US Ambassador Susan Rice •

    9. Structure of UN Security Council: 15 Members 5 Permanent members (Why?) USA Russia (USSR) Great Britain France China 10 Rotate-2 year term Powers: Take action Economic sanctions Military force Examples?

    10. United States Policy

    11. Marshall Plan George Marshall-US Secretary of State Goal: Rebuild Europe, Stop Communism Reality-Buying Allies Who and how much? Portugal: 51 million Greece: 707 million Austria: 678 million Turkey: 225 million Italy: 1.5 billion France 2.7 billion Belgium/Luxembourg:546 mil Netherland: 1 billion West Germany: 1.4 billion Denmark: 273 million Sweden: 107 million Norway 236 million UK: 3.19 billion USA Debt?

    12. Containment Definition: policy created by the US to stop the spread of communism. (George Kennan) Communist: North Korea, China, Southeast Asia, Vietnam Examples: Korean War (1950-1953), Vietnam War(1960’s-1970’s), Attacks vs Cuba, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979)

    13. Truman Doctrine Harry Truman: President Definition: US has the right to help anyone resisting armed aggression USA gives the USA the right Examples: Korean War, Vietnam War, Operation Desert Storm, War on Terrorism Policeman of the World!

    14. McCarthyism Senator Joe McCarthy (Wisc) Investigate and arrest Court trials (never a conviction) Red Scare-Fear of communism in the USA Communist denied the right to vote Loyalty oaths No freedom of speech for communists House Committee on Un-American Activities Creation of black lists War vs subversives Book bans Ruined careers

    15. Cold War Conflict

    16. Berlin Airlift Soviets Blockade West Berlin-1948 East and West Berlin Why is West Berlin important? Symbol of Cold War Would be cause of WW3 US Response: fly everything to West Berlin Soviet response: Berlin wall-a wall separating East/West Berlin Soviet goal: stop people from leaving

    17. Korean War 1950-1953 North Korea (Com) vs South Korea (Dem) US involvement-to stop the spread of communism (Containment/Truman Doctrine) North-backed by China and USSR South-backed by United Nations/NATO Stops invasion-countries remain divided Technically still at war-No peace treaty Issues today? US Military presence

    18. Berlin Wall 1961 Purpose-separate East and West Berlin 28 mile long fence at first Concrete wall Mine fields Guard towers and dogs East Berlin becomes prison Escapes- Movie Clip- Fall of the wall (1989) Signals end of Eastern Bloc Alliance

    19. Bay of Pigs Invasion Background (1955) Communist revolution in Cuba USA opposition-Too close JFK (USA), Khrushchev (USSR), Castro (Cuba) President Kennedy’s Decision Arm Cuban revolutionaries (CIA trained) Invade Bay of Pigs Start Cuban revolution Results: Failure JFK looked weak Too young to be president, too inexperienced, Relationship with U.S. military (not good) Does this lead to JFK assassination?

    20. Cuban Missile Crisis USA, USSR, Cuba-Closest to World War 3 in history Issue:Balance of Power- USA, USSR MAD: Mutual Assured Destruction USSR: put missiles in Cuba (90 miles from USA) in response Bay of Pigs invasion Shifts the “balance of power” USA>USSR or USA<USSR or USA=USSR WHICH IS IT? Thirteen Days

    21. Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy’s options: nuclear attack limited attack international politics blockade of Cuba threats (ultimatum) ignore it invade Cuba JFK’s Speech to nation: JFK’s decision: blockade, ultimatum Game of Nuclear Chicken! DEFCON 2 (Defense Condition) CBS Video-

    22. End of Crisis Khrushchev stops missiles Communication-JFK and Khrushchev Compromise is reached USSR-missiles out of Cuba USA-missiles out of Turkey Closest to World War 3 ever!! Relationship-JFK and Khrushchev improves Kennedy’s assassination-1963 Who was responsible? Cold War continues until 1992