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Census Mapping in Nepal Shailendra Ghimire Statistics Officer Central Bureau of Statistics Kathmandu, NEPAL
Introduction • Without well defined territory, possibility of double counting or missing the population. • Important role in census operation as well as the dissemination and analysis of census results • The quality of Maps used in the censuses has a major impact on the quality and reliability of census results.
Introduction • Digital techniques have becoming popular in these days, which makes easy for better management, faster retrieval and improved presentation of spatial as well as census attribute data. • There is always close linkage between geography and statistics and such linkage in statistical applications yields lager benefits to statistical offices as it reduces the cost and time required to collect ,compile and distribute information. • Therefore, we need to promote GIS technologies to produce a greater number of spatially referenced statistical services
The Role of Maps in the Census • Maps are needed during all stages of a census or survey i.e. planning, data collection, and presentation and analysis of the result. • The role of maps in the census lies in supporting enumeration task and presenting census results. • This role has been expanded with the introduction of digital mapping system. • GIS has played a key role in production of EA maps, Thematic mapping of census data, analysis and dissemination of census data.
The Role of Maps in the Census • The census mapping task can be divided into three major components: • pre-census, • census-enumeration, and • post-census mapping operation.
Development of Census Mapping in Nepal • Earlier census were undertaken without maps. • The earlier population figures at district level of Nepal prior to 1971 cannot be compared with the results of censuses after 1971 due to frequent changes of boundary of those territories and changes of number of administrative units from census to census. • Therefore, the pre-census mapping is the most basic concerns for significant improvement of census taking in Nepal.
Population Census 1952/54 • The Census mapping in Nepal has begun since the census 1952/54 • Nepal was divided into 33 administrative districts. • Census office had decided to have own census districts,10 geographical divisions, 816 thum ( group of villages in hill districts) and, parganna (group of villages in tarai districts) as units.
Population Census 1952/54 • The census map by thum was published by Departmeent of Statistics (Sankhya Bivag) in 1957. • The map of scale 1”=4 mile produced by Survey of India was taken as the basis for the division of census EAs at that time. • Natural Boundary was taken as the basis for delineation of enumeration areas. • The map did not contain any details except boundary delineation of census districts, thum and parganna. Census map of Kathmandu District (1952/54)
Population Census 1961 • Further improvement of the mapping could not follow after the initiation made in 1952/54. • The census district went up to 55 census district. • The boundaries of some districts, thum and parganna were changed and adjusted. • Districts were divided into 18 census zones and 102 sub-zones comprising 456 census area and 28,400 villages. • The village was the unit of enumeration • In the absence of pre-census mapping, there was every possibility of over or under enumeration in 1961 census also.
Population Census 1971 • The district was increased from 55 to 75 districts • For the purpose of local level administration, the concept of Village Panchayat and Wards was introduced. • This census was based on these newly formed districts, and results were reported accordingly. • The maps with delineation of new boundary were unavailable in this census.
Population Census 1981 • It was the much-realized necessity of detail maps for the census taking in 1981. • UNFPA has assisted to prepare maps for 3912 village panchayats, 23 Town Panchayats and 75 district levels at the scale of 1:25000, 1:5000, 1:10000 and 1:125000 • It was the first attempt to prepare such detailed maps for the census taking in Nepal
Population Census 1991 • The maps up to the VDC levels were prepared for conducting the census. • The map did not have ward delineation and contained some detail information like settlements names, rivers, roads.
Population Census 2001 • Population census mapping project was started in 1998 and prepared base maps. • This project also had prepared the maps up to the VDC and municipality level with ward boundary delineation. • The existing topographic maps (1992-2002) were digitized in order to create digital database, which were used to produce EA maps for census. Khopi VDC, Mahottari District Banarjhula VDC, Saptari
Population Census 2001 • Orthophotoes in scale 1:5000 or 1:10000 were also produced by digital methods of dense and semi-dense urban areas • However, these orthophotoes could not be implemented in this census. • GIS technology was extremely used in post census cartographic activities • “Mapping Census 2001 and Trends” and its CD( joint work by CBS and ICIMOD), “Population and Socio-economic Atlas” and Census Web Atlas ( joint work by CBS and SD) were prepared for the use of potential users.
Experiences from Past Censuses • Actual EA maps have not been prepared • Although, Maps were prepared, only supervisors were provided these maps during the census operation. • Conventional mapping as well as digital mapping activities were carried out via Survey Department of Nepal. • Some capacity development and infrastructure development activities of CBS were made during post census stage.
Future Plan • There has been tremendous growth of population and settlement in urban areas. It is essential to develop quality EA maps. • In the absence of the good enumeration area (EA) maps, it is very difficult to conduct the census and achieve the complete coverage and enumeration of the whole country. • A pilot study in census mapping has already conducted for the upcoming census using orthophoto and toposheet prepared by survey department.
Future Plan for census Mapping • CBS is planning to use high resolution satellite images, GPS for preparing enumeration area mapping for up-coming census 2011. • CBS will start preparing EA map for all 58 municipalities and some dense VDcs from this year. • The EA map will contain some detail information like settlements name, rivers, roads and other feature using Images, toposheet and GPS. • Census results will be presented using new GIS technologies instead of traditional methods.
Biratnagar Topo Ward Boundary Biratnagar Topo Ward Boundary 2, 9 and 10 Biratnagar Municipality
Ward No 9 Ward No 10 Ward No 12 Ward No 2, 9 and 10 Toposheet Ward boundary overlaid on eartho photo image
Biratnagar Toposheet Modified
Gap ?? Corner ?? Corner ?? Biratnagar WN 2,9 and 10
Biratnagar Ward No 10 Information collected with the help of Google image
Conclusion • Census mapping is considered to be very important sector in all stages of census. • The presentation of census results with visualization in the map has been more effective and efficient nowadays for the prospective users to fulfill their purpose. • Time has come to think seriously over the historical problems of census taking in Nepal; and to find the alternative ways for development of database units and prepare a new map base; for future censuses to come, once for ever.