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Napoleon Forges an Empire . 23.3 Page 584. Napoleon Bonaparte. 5ft, 3 inches tall Recognized as one of the world’s military geniuses along with Alexander and Julius Caesar Sent to military school in northern France at age 9

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napoleon bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • 5ft, 3 inches tall
  • Recognized as one of the world’s military geniuses along with Alexander and Julius Caesar
  • Sent to military school in northern France at age 9
  • 1785, only 16 years old, finished school and became a lieutenant in the army
hero of the hour
Hero of the Hour
  • When the Revolution broke out, Napoleon joined the new government’s army
  • Royalists stormed the National Convention, and Napoleon received orders to greet those protestors with fire
  • Those attackers fled in panic and confusion
  • Napoleon Bonaparte became the hero of the hour, and was hailed throughout Paris as the savior of the French Republic
1796, the Directory (France’s new government) appoints Napoleon to lead an army against Austria and the kingdom of Sardinia

Napoleon’s army won a series of battles in Italy, crushing the threat of Austrian troops to France

The newspapers praise Napoleon’s victories

Next, Napoleon’s army moved on to Egypt to disrupt trade between Britain and India

Napoleon’s series of defeats would end, and his luck ran out

His French troops were defeated by British admiral Horatio Nelson

Napoleon was able to keep this defeat from the press

Napoleon vs. Nelson

directory loses control
Directory Loses Control
  • The French people had lost confidence in the Directory
  • The only thing keeping the them in power was their control of the army
  • The Abbe Sieyes urges Napoleon to seize political power
  • Napoleon puts a plan in motion
napoleon takes control
Napoleon Takes Control
  • It began on November 9, 1799, when Napoleon was put in charge of the military
  • It ended the next day when his troops drove out the members of 1 chamber of the legislature, and then voted to dissolve the Directory
  • Napoleon assumes dictatorial powers as 1 of 3 consuls
  • Sudden seize of power called a coup- french phrase coup d`e tat
europe at peace
Europe at Peace
  • France was still at war
  • 1799, British Diplomats assemble the Second Coalition of anti-French powers- Britain, Austria and Russia- with the goal of driving Napoleon from power
  • By 1802, as a result of war and diplomacy, all 3 countries had signed peace agreements with France and Europe was at peace for the first time in 10 years.
Napoleon could now focus on restoring France

At first, he pretends to be the constitutionally chosen leader, but in 1800, Napoleon holds a plebiscite (vote of the people) to approve a new constitution

This was the 4th constitution in 8 years

French people are so desperate for strong leadership, voted in favor for power to Napoleon

napoleon brings stability and order
Napoleon Brings Stability and Order
  • To get economy stable- sets up tax collection and national bank
  • Dismissed corrupt officials
  • Set up lycees, government run public schools to train officials
  • Signed concordat (agreement) with Pope Pius VII, creating a new relationship between the Church and France
  • Concordat gains Napoleon support from church and the French
napoleonic code
Napoleonic Code
  • He was most proud of Napoleonic Code, gave France a uniform set of laws

-eliminated many injustices

-limited and promoted order and authority over individual rights

-freedom of speech and press restricted, as well as women’s rights

-restored slavery in French colonies in the Caribbean where slavery had been abolished

napoleon crowned as emperor
Napoleon Crowned as Emperor
  • In 1804, napoleon decided to make himself emperor
  • In a flashy ceremony, wearing a long robe, he walked slowly down the aisle of the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris
  • He takes the crown out of the pope’s hands, and puts it on his own head
  • This arrogant gesture showed Napoleon had more power than the church
Napoleon taking the crown from the pope instead of following tradition and allowing the Pope to crown him
napoleon creates an empire
Napoleon Creates an Empire
  • Napoleon wants to create an empire and control all of Europe and reassert French power in the new world (Americas)
  • He envisions his western empire to include Florida, Louisiana and the French West Indies
  • To do this, he needs support from the French colony St. Domingue (now Haiti)
  • There’s a civil war going on in St. Domingue because slaves want their freedom back, along with the same privileges of French citizens
louisiana purchase
Louisiana Purchase
  • Napoleon sends over troops to get control over the island
  • Thousands of soldiers die from yellow fever
  • Napoleon realizes the long obstacle facing him and doesn’t want the trouble
  • He offers to sell all of the Louisiana territory to the U.S.
In 1803, U.S. President, Thomas Jefferson agrees to buy the territory for $15 million.

This benefited Napoleon 2 ways:

1) France gains money to finance operations in Europe

2) punished Britain by giving them another rival (the U.S.)

napoleon focuses on conquering europe
Napoleon Focuses on Conquering Europe
  • Napoleon had already annexed the Austrian Netherlands, parts of Italy and set up a puppet government in Switzerland
  • Fearful of his ambitions, Britain persuaded Russia, Austria and Sweden to join a third coalition against France
Napoleon has a series of brilliant battles and crushes his opposition

All rulers sign a peace treaty with France except Britain

Napoleon has the biggest empire since the Romans

The only threat is Britain’s Navy

Yep- it’s an island and surrounded by water!

Hey… Why do you think Britain needs to have a strong Navy??

In his war against the third coalition, Napoleon lost just one major battle, the Battle of Trafalgar
  • This naval defeat was more important than all of Napoleon’s victories on land

Napoleon vs. Nelson Round 2

  • Battle took place in 1804 off coast of Spain
  • British admiral who defeated Napoleon in 1798 in charge of British fleet
  • Nelson outmaneuvered the much bigger fleet of French-Spanish fleet
  • Nelson was wounded by a French sharpshooter, but heard the news of defeating Napoleon once again before he died

“Now I am satisfied,” whispered the admiral. “Thank God, I have done my duty”.

Destruction of French fleets had 2 major results:

1) assured supremacy of British navy for the next hundred years

2) Napoleon had to give up idea of invading Britain

napoleon s empire
Napoleon’s Empire
  • By 1812, the only major European countries free from Napoleon’s control were Britain, Ottoman Empire, Portugal and Sweden
  • Other countries in Europe had rulers who were puppets of Napoleons, or even related
  • French Empire is huge, but unstable.
  • Napoleon was able to maintain the empire for just 5 years (1807-1812), but caused the collapse himself