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Solid Waste Public Health Concerns
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  1. Solid WastePublic Health Concerns Jeremiah Johnson Chi Vuong

  2. Overview • Introduction • Developed countries overview • Developing countries overview • Solutions

  3. Introduction No regulated dumping; Open dumps Past to early 19th Century Breeding rodents, insects Buried dump sites; mainly nonhazardous More sanitary, less contamination First half of the 20th Century 300 million metric tons/year; space Change in waste content, hazardous waste Last half of the 20th Century to present

  4. Developed Countries Overview • Public health concern -diseases • Risks- substances, contamination etc. • Solid Waste Management • Methods • Impact • Regulations

  5. Public Health Concern • Vectors: - flies - mosquitoes (yellow fever, malaria) - rats (32) - swine (pathogens)

  6. Solid Waste Management • Feed to swine • Dump into bodies of water • Open burning • Dumps or tips • Sanitary landfill (U.S., England, Germany) • Army’s Corp of Engineers (bullclam) • compaction, cover, liners

  7. Common Landfill Layout

  8. Impact of Landfills • Leachate and gases • Scarce land • Health Effects (adverse pregnancy outcomes, liver function)

  9. U.S. Regulations • 1899 River and Harbors Act • 1965 Solid Waste Disposal Act • 1970 National Environmental Policy Act (EPA) • 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  10. Developing Countries Overview • Public health concern • Risks- substances, contamination etc. • Solid Waste Management • Environmental justice- hazardous waste • Cost of disposal • Aiding developing countries

  11. Developing Countries • Public Health Concern • Homes-

  12. Drifting Along the Shores

  13. Solutions • The catchy phrase: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle • Source Reduction in Industry • Consumer pay as you throw programs • Implemented in 7.2% of GA communities • Implemented in over 50% of communities in MA, WI, IA, and NH • Implemented in 100% of communities in WA, OR, and MN

  14. Sources • Race, Wealth, and Solid Waste Facilities in North Carolina Jennifer M. Norton,1 Steve Wing,1 Hester J. Lipscomb,2 Jay S. Kaufman,1 Stephen W. Marshall,1 and Altha J. Cravey31Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA;2Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA;3Department of Geography, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA • Title Slide Image http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/0/0d/Solid_waste_used_to_build_a_road.jpg/800px-Solid_waste_used_to_build_a_road.jpg • Sustainable Solid Waste http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTPHAAG/Resources/AAGEHEng.pdf

  15. Sources • 2006 Pay as You Throw Programs http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/payt/06comm.htm • Cointreu, Sandra. Occupational and Environmental Health Issues of Solid Waste Management. World Bank Group. July 2006. • Holy Bible, 23 Deuteronomy 12-13

  16. Sources • Vesilind, P. Aarne. Worrell, William. Reinhart, Debra. Solid Waste Engineering, 2002 • A Brief History of Solid Waste Management in the US During the Last 50 Years by H. Lanier Hickman, Jr. and Richard W. Eldredge. 2000.

  17. Sources • Investigating Health Concerns in populations living near the Cleanaway landfill in Tallamarine. 2006.http://www.health.vic.gov.au/environment/downloads/tulla_report.pdf • Vrijheid, Martine. Health Effects of Residence Near Hazardous Waste Landfill Sites: A Review of Epidemiologic Literature. March 2002. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov • Slide Image: http://www.metrokc.gov/dnr/kidsweb/images/landfill_diagram.gif