Protein synthesis
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Protein Synthesis. From DNA to Proteins!. What is a gene?. A small segment of DNA that provides instructions for making proteins. Gene. What is a protein?. Amino acids (monomers) linked (bonded) together!. From DNA (gene) to protein?.

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Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

From DNA to Proteins!


What is a gene
What is a gene?

  • A small segment of DNA that provides instructions for making proteins



What is a protein
What is a protein?

  • Amino acids (monomers) linked (bonded) together!


From dna gene to protein
From DNA (gene) to protein?

  • The nucleotide order is copied in the nucleus into a message (mRNA) = Transcription (DNA stays in the nucleus)

  • The “messengerRNA” is sent to the ribosome

  • C =G

  • G = C

  • T = A

  • A = U



Proteins are made in the ribosomes
Proteins are made in the ribosomes!

  • Three nucleotides (bases) make a “codon”

  • Each codon is a message to bring in one amino acid (using tRNA)

  • The amino acids are linked together to form the protein



Practice
Practice!

  • In RNA, U (uracil) is substituted for T (thymine)

  • DNA = GGG CCC ATA

  • mRNA = CCC GGG UAU

  • Amino Acid = Pro Gly Tyr


Examples of proteins
Examples of proteins

  • Sucrase (breaks down sucrose / sugar)

  • Helicase (unwinds DNA during replication)

  • Keratin (hair and nails)

  • Melanin (pigment in skin, hair and eyes)

  • Collagen (found in tendons and skin)

  • Insulin (regulates blood sugar)

  • Antibodies (fight invading bacteria)

  • Myosin (main protein of muscle fiber)

  • P53 (tumor/ cancer suppressor)