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PALESTINE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ISRAEL. 1095-1291 - Crusades (3) –Christians tried to reclaim the Holy Land. Failed-Islamic leader, Saladin, defeated Christians 1453-1916 - Ottoman Empire controlled Turkey and lands along eastern Mediterranean including Palestine

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  1. PALESTINE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ISRAEL • 1095-1291-Crusades(3) –Christians tried • to reclaim the Holy Land. Failed-Islamic leader, Saladin, defeated Christians • 1453-1916- Ottoman Empire controlled Turkey and lands along eastern Mediterranean including Palestine • 1896-1916- Zionist Movement founded by Theodore Herzl which encouraged Jews to return to their homeland in Palestine

  2. Jewish population in Palestine grew from 12,000 in 1896 to 85,000 in 1914 • Toward the end of WW I, European countries divided the land around Palestine formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire. Palestine was divided into zones of influence called mandates: • France- Syria and Lebanon • Britain-Iraq and Jordan • Palestine was internationalized

  3. 1917-the Balfour Declaration issued by the British government favored the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people. This “national home” was not realized until 1948.

  4. 1947-United Nations adopted a plan to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states with Jerusalem as an international zone • Jews received 56% of the land, but 2/3 of the population was of Arabic origin. Jews were given the coastal area while the Palestinians received the inland arid andmountainous areas • 1948- May 14th the nation of Israel was proclaimed. On May 15th Israel was invaded by its Arab neighbors

  5. PALESTINIAN REFUGEES IN 1948 Over 450,000 Palestinians left/were forced to leave their homes in March, 1948. Jews claim that the Palestinians were encouraged to leave by their Arab leaders. Palestinians claim that they were forced to leave.


  7. PALESTINIAN REFUGEE CAMPS TODAY There are now about 4 million refugees in the West Bank, Gaza and neighboring Arab nations.

  8. Israel survived the attack by its neighbors and began to develop the land • 1964- PLO-Palestinian LiberationOrganization was established • 1967- Six day war between Israel, Egypt,Jordan, and Syria. Israel won and gained lands of • West Bank Golan Heights • Gaza Strip Sinai Peninsula

  9. 1972- Olympics in Munich, Germany. Arab terrorists attacked the Israeli dormitory killing 11 Israeli athletes. Five terrorists and one policeman were also slain.

  10. 1979- Camp David Peace Treaty between Egypt (Anwar el Sadat) and Israel (Menaham Begin) Sinai Peninsulareturned to Egypt and Egypt recognized Israel as a nation

  11. 1981-Anwar el Sadat of Egypt is assassinated by an Islamic fundamentalist.

  12. 1982 – Shiite terrorist group Hezbollah (Party of God) is formed and based in Lebanon.

  13. 1987- Intifada first coined during this year. An Arabic word derived from the root meaning “to shake”. Palestinians wanted to shake off the chains of occupation. Symbolic stone throwing protests against Israeli soldiers

  14. 1987- HAMAS (Islamic Resistance Movement) formed. Plans to use political and violent means to create an Islamic Palestinian state. Influence concentrated in Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

  15. -- • 1993- Oslo Accords negotiates near Oslo, Norway, was an historic agreement between Israel and the PLO. Marked the first time that Israel and Palestinians formally recognized each other’s existence President Clinton-U.S. Rabin of Israel Arafat of the PLO

  16. 1994-Jordan (leader-King Hussein) signs peace treaty at the White House with Israel.

  17. 1995 –Rabin is assassinated by an Orthodox Jewish Israeli because “Rabin was going to give our country to the Arabs”.

  18. The Intifada has continued in Israel and occupied territories.

  19. Ayat -18 years old Rachel-17 years old Suicide bombings continue-March 29,2002

  20. KEY ISSUES IN DISPUTE • Palestinian statehood- boundaries? • Jerusalem- both Israel and Palestinians want Jerusalem as its capital • Refugees -4 million displaced persons are in neighboring nations and in Israel • Security and terrorism – Israel wants assurance that attacks will cease • Settlements – Israeli settlements in Palestinian areas • Water - How should water be distributed?

  21. 2002 to present- West Bank Barrier under construction. Israel claims it is for security reasons.

  22. Palestinians claim that it is designed to disrupt transportation and separate Palestinian villages


  24. Jewish settlements in occupied lands West Bank and Gaza Strip There are now over 200,000 Israelis living in about 300 settlements among 3 million Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip These Israeli settlers are living on land which was captured by the Israelis in the 1967 war and it is on this land that the Palestinians want to establish an independent state.

  25. Study the areas in the West Bank under Israeli control and where the Israeli settlements are. Note the areas under Palestinian control and designate where you think the boundaries for a Palestinian state should be in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.

  26. Israel has already turned over some 40% of the contested land to full or partial Palestinian control in peace deals since 1993, however, the Jewish settlers regard the West Bank as Biblical land bequeathed to the Jews by God. • The international community regards the settlements as illegal and obstacles to peace. • The Palestinians see settlers as land thieves and legitimate targets for attack.

  27. Palestinians are prohibited from building in approximately 60 % of the West Bank and 87 % of Jerusalem Since 1967 more than 6,000 Palestinian homes have been destroyed in these areas.

  28. 2005, Israel evacuates Israelis from 17 Gaza settlements. Violence continues to disrupt lives of those living in the Gaza Strip and West Bank HAMAS has taken control of the Gaza Strip. At this time, two isolated settlements in the West Bank were evacuated.

  29. ABOUT 246 ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS IN THE WEST BANK Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip have been dismantled.

  30. Total of about 4 million refugees in Gaza Strip, West Bank and neighboring countries What should be done about these people without permanent homes?


  32. CURRENT LEADERSHIPPRIME MINISTER OF ISRAEL as of 2006, EHUD OLMERT, WILL BE RESIGNING UNDER CHARGES OF CORRUPTION –New leadership to be elected next year Member of the centrist Kadima Party

  33. Leader of the PLO Yasir Arafat dies in 2004 and MAHMOUD ABBAS- becomes President of the Palestinian National Authority and is known as the voice of Palestinian moderation. Has had conflicts with the leadership of HAMAS.


  35. Population of Israel- 6.7 million ( 83% are Jews) most others are Arabs • Israel about the size of Massachusetts • West Bank -1.8 million (83% are Palestinian Arabs) 17% Israeli Jews • Gaza Strip - 1.2 million (99.4% Palestinian Arabs, .6% Jews)


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