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Social/Emotional Competencies for School Leadership. James D. A. Parker, Ph.D. Canada Research Chair in Emotion & Health , Trent University. Overview. introduction background & overview of EI models EI and success in various learning environments EI and leadership

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Social emotional competencies for school leadership l.jpg
Social/Emotional Competencies for School Leadership

James D. A. Parker, Ph.D.

Canada Research Chair in Emotion & Health,

Trent University


Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • introduction

  • background & overview of EI models

  • EI and success in various learning environments

  • EI and leadership

  • EI resources for the OPC project


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Acknowledgements

  • Multi-Health Systems (Toronto, Ontario)

  • The Trinity Group (Huntsville, Alabama)

  • Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada

  • Canada Research Chair Program

  • Canada Foundation for Innovation

  • Ontario Principals’ Council


Predicting success in life what do we know about iq l.jpg
Predicting success in life: What do we know about IQ?

  • predicts secondary school grades very modestly

  • does not predict success in post-secondary environments

  • predicts “job success” poorly

  • peaks in late teens, early 20’s

  • culture-bound


Emotional and social competency historical overview l.jpg

Thorndike (1920): “social intelligence”

Wechsler (1940): “non-intellective abilities”

Sifneos (1973): “alexithymia”

Gardner (1983): “multiple intelligence”

Sternberg (1985): “practical intelligence”

Salovey & Mayer (1989): “emotional intelligence”

Emotional and Social Competency: Historical Overview


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EI(continued)

  • EI is a set of non-cognitive competencies and skills (i.e., not related to IQ)

  • emotional intelligence develops over time

  • changes throughout life


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EI across the life-span

Decade of life


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When does EI change? (the importance of transitions)

  • from elementary school to high school

  • high school to the workplace

  • high school to university

  • from single to being married

  • transition to parenthood

  • losing a job (changing jobs)

  • from marriage to divorce


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EI(continued)

  • can be improved through training and intervention programs

  • can be used to predict a number of “success in life” variables


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Salovey & Mayer Model of EI

Emotional

Facilitation

Emotional Perception

Emotional

Understanding

Emotion

Management


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Bar-On Model of EI

Interpersonal

Abilities

Intrapersonal

Abilities

Stress

Management

Abilities

Adaptability

Abilities

General Mood


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Parker, Wood & Bond Model of EI

Emotional Understanding

Psychological

Mindedness

Attentiveness

(non-obliviousness)

Emotional

Self-Control



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Predicting Post-Secondary Success

  • trends in the research literature

  • or what have we learned after 100+ years of research?


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Trends in the Research Literature (continued)

How has success been defined?

  • academic achievement (e.g., GPA)

  • retention


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Trends in the Research Literature(continued)

Favorite predictors?

  • previous school performance (i.e., high school marks)

  • cognitive ability (IQ)

  • economic/demographic variables



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Impact of Emotional Intelligence? retention?

  • growing interest in a possible link between academic success and EI


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Why students withdraw? retention?

  • possible role of EI comes from research on why students drop-out or withdraw from post-secondary programs



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Most common “personal problems” retention?

  • problems making new relationships

  • problems modifying existing relationships (e.g., living apart)

  • difficulties learning new study habits

  • problems learning to be independent


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Trent Academic Success & Wellness Project (TASWP) retention?

  • phase 1 started in Sept. (1999) at Trent University

  • initial goal was to develop an assessment protocol to identify 1st-year students at risk for “failure”

  • focus was on full-time students coming to Trent within 24 months of graduation from high-school


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TASWP retention?(Trent participants)


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TASWP retention?(predicting academic success; Parker et al., 2004)

  • 2 groups of particular interest:

    • "successful" students (1st-year GPA of 80% or better)

    • "unsuccessful" students (1st-year GPA of 59% or less)


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Two groups not significantly different on: retention?

  • high school GPA

  • age

  • course load at start of year


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* retention?

*

*

* p < .05

Mean EQ-i scores for 1st year students (GPA 80% or better vs. 59% or less)




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TASWP retention?(predicting retention; Parker et al., 2005)

  • 2 groups of interest:

    • students who withdrew at some point before the start of 2nd year

    • 2nd-year students at Trent (randomly matched with the 1st group on age, gender, and year starting at Trent)




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Is there something unusual about Trent University? retention?

  • 2002: US Pilot Project (N = 1,426; Parker, Duffy et al., 2005)

    • UNC Charlotte, U. Charleston, Georgia Southern U., U. Southern Mississippi, West Virginia U., Fairmont State College



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Trent Academic Success & Wellness Project (High School Performance; Parker, Creque et al., 2004)

  • May 2002: students (grade 9 to 12) attending a high school in Huntsville, Alabama (n = 742) completed the EQ-i:YV during a home-room period


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2 groups identified: Performance;

  • 138 students scoring at the 80th percentile or better (for their grade) on end of year GPA

  • 131 students scoring at the 20th percentile or less (for their grade) on end of year GPA


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* Performance;

*

*

* p < .05

Mean EQ-i:YV scores for high school students (80th percentile or better vs. 20th or less)


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EI and Intervention Performance;


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EI and Intervention: Performance; Youth Challenge Academy Study (Parker, Duffy et al., 2005)

  • residential training and mentoring program for at-risk youth (15 to 18 yrs)

  • improve life skills

  • improve educational level

  • improve employment potential


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Outcome Study Performance;

  • 1283 young adults (15 to 18 yrs) attending the program in 6 locations in the U.S. (83% male)

  • participants completed EQ-i:YV at the start of program

  • subgroup (n =432) completed EQ-i:YV at the end of “Challenge” phase.


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EI levels of 1283 individuals starting program vs. 1283 matched controls

*

* p < .05

*

*

Mean

Score

*



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EI levels: beginning vs. end of program (n = 432) 230)

*

*

*

Mean

Score

* p < .05


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EI and a post-secondary education 230)(Parker et al., 2005)

  • from the TASWP a random subset of students (N = 238) completed the EI measure a second time

  • testing situation was approx. 32 months after the 1st testing session


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Change in EI 230)(cross-sectional vs. longitudinal samples)

*

*

*

*

%

Change

*p < .05


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EI and Leadership 230)

  • emerging literature from various employment sectors


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Trent leadership project 230)

  • How to be an great failure trying to implement and manage change in an organization?


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One 230)

  • Ignore the need to make the case for change in the organization: use the “just do it!” approach to leadership as much as possible.


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Two 230)

  • Ignore the need to create deep or substantive structural changes: provide plenty of opportunities for members of your organization to pay “lip-service” to change.


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Three 230)

  • Engage as few people in the organization as possible in the process: stop at the top of the organization…or work your way from the bottom downward.


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Four 230)

  • Follow up on as few details in the process as possible: delegate and move on.


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Five 230)

  • Limit the opportunities of members of your organization to improvise: Maintain a rigid structure to all stages of the new initiative.


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OPC Leadership Study 230)

  • Basic goal of the study was to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and school leadership in a large (very generalizable) sample of school administrators.


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OPC Leadership Study 230)(continued)

  • Specifically, this project sought to identify key emotional and social competencies required by school administrators (principals and vice-principals) to successfully meet the demands and responsibilities of their positions.


Participants l.jpg
Participants 230)

  • 464 principals or vice-principals (187 men and 277 women) from nine Ontario school boards

    • Algoma DSB, Grand Erie DSB, Hamilton-Wentworth DSB, Ottawa-Carlton DSB, Rainbow DSB, Rainy River DSB, Thames Valley DSB, Toronto DSB, and Waterloo Region DSB


Participants continued l.jpg
Participants 230)(continued)

  • 226 elementary school principals,

  • 84 elementary school vice-principals,

  • 43 secondary school principals and

  • 57 secondary school vice-principals (54 did not indicate their current position)


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Participants 230)(continued)

  • mean age: 47.3 years

  • mean length of time in the education field: 22.4 years

  • mean length of time as principal: 5.4 years

  • mean length of time as vice-principal: 3.0 years


Measures l.jpg
Measures 230)

  • Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; Bar-On, 1997)

    • 125-item self-report instrument designed to measure the core features of emotional intelligence

      • Intrapersonal

      • Interpersonal

      • Adaptability

      • Stress Management


Measures continued l.jpg
Measures 230)(continued)

  • Leadership Questionnaire

    • 21 items related to leadership abilities (selected from a review of various skills and abilities used in performance evaluations of school administrators from several different boards)

    • Separate self-report, supervisor and staff rater forms

  • Plus an overall leadership rating (using a single 10-point scale)


  • Measures continued59 l.jpg
    Measures 230)(continued)

    • An overall leadership rating (using a single 10-point Likert scale)

    • Leadership Questionnaire

      • 21 items related to leadership abilities (selected from a review of various skills and abilities used in performance evaluations of school administrators from several different boards)

      • Separate self-report, supervisor and staff rater forms


    Measures continued60 l.jpg
    Measures 230)(continued)

    • Leadership Questionnaire (continued)

      • Two separate dimensions

        • Task-oriented leadership (relates to skills like managing resources, delegating tasks, and planning for the future)

        • Relationship-oriented leadership (relates to skills like motivating others, communicating one on one, as well as in small groups)


    Procedure l.jpg
    Procedure 230)

    • Participants completed the EQ-i online

    • Participants also completed the self-report leadership questionnaire (paper-and-pencil version) and mailed it back to the research team


    Procedure continued l.jpg
    Procedure 230)(continued)

    • Participants’ asked their immediate supervisor (principal for VP; superintendent for principal) to complete a leadership rating form (which were mailed back to research team)

    • Participants were instructed to ask 3 different staff members to complete a leadership rating form (which were mailed back to research team)


    Procedure continued63 l.jpg
    Procedure 230)(continued)

    • Predicting the “Good” Leader:

      • total self-reported leadership score used to create 2 two groups: above average leadership ability (top 20%); below average leadership ability (bottom 20%).


    Procedure continued64 l.jpg
    Procedure 230)(continued)

    • 2 leadership groups (below vs. above) created using supervisor ratings

    • 2 groups created using staff ratings

    • 2 groups created using combined staff/supervisor ratings


    Results correlations between leadership ratings l.jpg
    Results 230)(correlations between leadership ratings)

    * p < .05


    Results above vs below average leadership s elf report ratings l.jpg
    Results 230)(above vs. below average leadership: self-report ratings)


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    Results 230)(above vs. below average leadership: combined supervisor/staff ratings)


    Results above average vs below average leadership overall prediction using ei l.jpg
    Results 230)(Above average vs. below average leadership: Overall prediction using EI)


    Conclusions l.jpg
    Conclusions 230)

    • Several key emotional and social competencies strongly distinguish above average leadership from below average leadership

    • findings were consistent regardless of gender, school level (e.g., elementary or secondary), or position (principal or vice-principal).


    Conclusions continued l.jpg
    Conclusions 230)(continued)

    • Professional development programs would be wise to focus on developing the abilities that best identified the above average leader

    • e.g., emotional self-awareness, self-actualization,empathy, interpersonal relationships, flexibility, problem solving, and impulse control.


    Ei resources for the opc project l.jpg
    EI Resources for the OPC Project 230)

    • personal EI assessment of current strengths and areas for growth


    Multidimensional inventory for emotional intelligence miei l.jpg

    Emotional Intelligence (EI): 230)

    Emotional Understanding

    Psychological Mindedness

    Attentiveness

    Emotional Self-Control

    EI-Related Constructs:

    Optimism

    Social Integration

    Performance Anxiety

    Social Anxiety

    102-item self-report scale

    Normative data from 2000+ adults

    Multidimensional Inventory for Emotional Intelligence (MIEI)


    Steps to access the miei l.jpg
    Steps To Access the MIEI 230)

    • Go to the Emotion and Health Research Laboratory (EHRL) website at Trent University

    • http://www.trentu.ca/psychology/jparker/surveys.htm

    • Select the Multidimensional Inventory for Emotional Intelligence (MIEI). Select English or French versions (note the French version will not be available until early September)


    Steps to access the miei continued l.jpg
    Steps To Access the MIEI 230)(continued)

    • A pop-up screen will asking for user ID and password. These are as follows:

      ID = OPC2005 and password = Parker

    • Enter these and select OK.

    • The Multidimensional Inventory for Emotional Intelligence will appear on your screen.


    Steps to access the miei continued77 l.jpg
    Steps To Access the MIEI 230)(continued)

    • After you complete the survey select “Submit” (you will be notified if you have left an item blank).

    • A feedback report will be emailed to you using information you provide on the survey.


    How to be an emotional unintelligent mentor for leadership development l.jpg
    How to be an emotional unintelligent mentor for leadership development?

    • Teach competencies such as leadership, strategic thinking, visioning, and adaptability using only classroom instruction formats.

    • Provide as few opportunities as possible to practise and transfer leadership experiences and knowledge


    Slide80 l.jpg


    Slide81 l.jpg


    Contact information l.jpg

    James D. A. Parker, among participants.

    Dept. of Psychology,

    Trent University,

    Peterborough, ON

    K9J 7B8

    Tel: 705-748-1011 x7935

    Fax: 705-748-1580

    jparker@trentu.ca

    Contact Information