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The French Revolution and Napoleon

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  1. The French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815 Chapter 7

  2. The French Revolution Begins • France • Looked like the most advanced country, really not • Bad harvests, high prices, lots of ?’s from the Enlightenment

  3. The Old Order • 3 large social classes, AKA Estates • Privileged Estates • Run for political office • No taxes • Roman Catholic Church (1st Estate) • Owned 10% of land • Helped the poor, paid 2% of income to taxes

  4. 2nd Estate • Rich nobles, 2% of population • Owned 20% of land • Paid almost NO taxes • 1st and 2nd Estate disliked the Enlightenment • Why? • Threatened their privileges

  5. 3rd Estate • 97% of people • 3 groups within the 3rd Estate • Bourgeoisie AKA Middle class • Factory owners, bankers, merchants… • Some as rich as the nobles • Paid high taxes, no privileges • Wanted better status/power

  6. Workers of France also in 3rd • Tradespeople, apprentices, servants, laborers, etc.. • Low wages, hard time finding work • If price of bread rose, would attack a bakery

  7. Peasants also in 3rd estate • 80% + of population • ½ of income paid in dues to nobles, Church and King. • Also taxed on salt • Resented 1st and 2nd Estate

  8. The Forces of Change • Enlightenment Ideas • New views of the government • Inspired by American Revolution • Started to demand Equality, Liberty and Democracy • “The Third Estate is the People and the People is the foundation of the State; it is in fact the State itself; the… people is everything., Everything should be subordinated to it… It is in the people that all national power resides and for the people that all states exist”

  9. Economic troubles • Bad economy, cost of living up • Heavy taxes made business lose $ • Crop failures • King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette spent too much $ • Borrowed lots of $ to help Americans win, doubled debt • Banks stopped lending $$

  10. Weak Leader • Louis XVI indecisive • Austrian wife-unpopular and giving him bad advice • Spent lots on clothes, jewels, gambling • Nicknamed “Madame Deficit” • Ran out of $, wanted to tax nobles • Called a meeting of the Estates General- reps from all 3 Estates to approve taxes

  11. Dawn of the Revolution • Clergy (church) and nobles dominated the Estates General • Each Estate had one vote and the top 2 could always override the 3rd

  12. National Assembly • 3rd Estate wanted to change government • Voted to call themselves the National Assembly • 3 days later locked out of meeting room • Broke into indoor tennis court • Pledged to stay until new constitution • Tennis Court Oath • King stationed mercenary guards around Versailles

  13. Rumors that Louis would use force to end the National Assembly • Storming of the Bastille (prison) • Searching for gunpowder • Took over the prison • Paraded the streets with dead guards heads on pikes • Bastille Day (like French 4th of July)

  14. Great Fear Sweeps France • Rebellion spread from city to countryside • Rumors that nobles hired outlaws to terrorize peasants • Defended themselves with pitchforks • Broke into nobles homes and destroyed papers making them pay dues to nobles • Women riot over rising price of bread • Broke into palace, killed guards • The King and his family left Versailles

  15. Ch 7 Sec. 2 Revolution Brings Reform and Terror • Peasants attacking nobles all over France • The Assembly Reforms France • National Assembly eliminated 1st and 2nd Estate • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • Inspired by Declaration of Independence • Rights: liberty, property, security, resitance to oppression, freedom of speech, equality before law, freedom of religion

  16. State-Controlled Church • Assembly took over church lands • Church officials elected and paid by gov. • Sale of church lands helped pay debt • Louis tries to escape • Feared he and his family were in danger • Many of his supporters left too • Caught near the border and returned

  17. Divisions Develop • 2 years of arguing over new constitution • Results • Limited monarchy • Legislative assembly-create laws, approve or reject war

  18. Factions split France • Same old problems persist • Food shortages • Government debt • Legislative assembly split into 3 groups • Radicals, moderates, conservative • This is where we get our Right, Left, middle

  19. Emigres- nobles who fled wanted to restore 3 Estates • Sans-culottes- those w/o knee breeches • Wore regular trousers • Wanted greater changes

  20. War and Execution • Other European countries nervous about French Revolution • Austria and Prussia urged King Louis to return to an absolute monarch • Legislative Assembly declared war! • Prussian commander threatened French if the royal family was hurt

  21. This angered Parisians • 20,000 angry men/women invaded the Palace where King and family were staying • Took them as prisoners after killing guards • September massacres • Rumors that prisoners loyal to the King would break out and take Paris • Raided prisons and murdered 1,000 prisoners • Many nobles, priests and royalists

  22. New Constitution • Pressured by radicals to throw out old constitution • Deposed the king • Dissolved the assembly • New legislature- National Convention • No monarchy, now a republic • Males get right to vote, still no voting for women

  23. Jacobins take control • Radical political organization (want lots of change) • Louis XVI no longer king, common citizen and a prisoner • Tried for treason, found guilty • Sentenced to death, beheaded by guillotine

  24. War continues • War w/ Austria/Prussia continuing • Great Britain, Holland and Spain join against France • French begin to lose battles • Drafted 300,000 citizens between 18 and 40 to fight, total 800,000, w/ women included

  25. The Terror Grips France • Maximilien Robespierre assumes control • Wanted to build a Republic of Virtue • New calendar w/ no sundays • Religion dangerous and old fashioned • Closed churches • Robespierre becomes leader of The Committee of Public Safety • Reign of terror

  26. Wanted to protect the Revolution from enemies • Trial in morning, guillotine in afternoon • Killed people for being less radical than Max • Around 40,000 executed • Many peasants, urban poor or middle class who the Revolution was for

  27. End of the Terror • Many people scared of Robespierre • Arrested and executed w/ guillotine • Tired of terror, high prices • New plan of government • The Directory • Corrupt, got rich at expense of France • Napoleon Bonaparte to command the Army.

  28. Ch 7 sec 3 Napoleon Forges an Empire • Napoleon Bonaparte • Went to military school • Joined army when revolution broke out • Many military victories • Failed in Egypt, but kept the stories out of the French news

  29. Coup d’etat-sudden seizure of power • Napoleon returned from Egypt, friends urged him take over • Surrounded legislature w/ troops • Most legislators fled • Remaining dissolved the directory • Named Napoleon first Consul

  30. After taking over, went to lead troops and got Britain, Austria and France to sign peace treaties • Europe at peace for first time in 10 yrs.

  31. Napoleon Rules France • People voted for new constitution • Napoleon has all real power • Wanted to improve the economy • Keep revolutionary changes

  32. Changes: • Efficient tax collection • End corruption/ government waste • Lycees- government run public schools • To have trained officials • Concordat- recognized church, but church has no influence on national issues • Won him support of the church and the people

  33. Napoleonic code-more fair laws • Order and authority over freedom • No freedom of speech and press • Restored slavery in colonies • Declares himself Emporer • Crowned by the Pope

  34. Napoleon Creates an Empire • Had trouble with sugar plantation workers in Haiti • Cut losses in the Americas • Sold Louisiana Territory to the US • Got the $ • Punish the British, humble their pride

  35. Conquering Europe • Built largest European Empire since Rome • Battle of Trafalgar • Destroyed the French Navy • Britain ruled the seas for 100 years

  36. Section 4 Napoleon’s Empire Collapses • Napoleon was worried about his empire • Josephine gave him no heir • Divorced her and formed an alliance with Austria • Had a son Napoleon II, named king of Rome

  37. Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes • Continental System • Set up a blockade- closed all ports • Cutting off all trade/communication for Great Britain w/ Europe • Wanted to destroy Great Britain • Smugglers still got through • Britain responded w/ its own blockade • Much stronger navy • Any neutral ship was sent to GB to be searched/taxed

  38. Peninsular War (delete) • Napoleon attempted to send invasion force through Spain to Portugal • Spanish people angry • Worried that church would become weaker like in France • Guerrillas attacked the French • British helped Spain too • People around Europe angry at Napoleon, taking pride in their own country against him (Nationalism) • Many people turned against the French

  39. Invasion of Russia • Alexander I of Russia • Napoleon’s ally • Refused to stop selling grain to England • Napoleon invaded Russia w/ 420,000 • Russians used a scorched earth policy • Leaving nothing for French to eat

  40. Napoleon chased Russians all the way to Moscow • Russians burnt city down rather than let French take it • Napoleon stayed in the city until mid Oct. • Decided to go back to France • Attacked by raiders, many more died of exhaustion hunger and cold • Mid December 10,000 straggled out of Russia

  41. Napoleon’s Downfall • Everyone sensed Napoleon’s weakness • Britain, Russia, Prussia and Sweden joined forces against weakened France • Trained new army, but inexperienced • Defeated quickly in Germany • Allies paraded through France • Surrendered, exiled him to Elba (small island off of Italy)