U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Increase America’s role in the world while simultaneously keeping the nation free of burdensome commitments that might limit its own freedom of action FDR: Keep the U. S. the master of her own fate; avoid important global commitments that might reduce our ability to pursue our needs
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Americans pursued a somewhat isolationist foreign policy while trying to be an international voice to reduce money spent on arms
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Charles Evans Hughes U. S. membership in the League of Nations no longer possible Legislation in 1921 declaring the war with Germany over Negotiated separate peace treaty with each of the former Central Powers Thought the U.S. would receive all of the advantages of the Versailles Treaty without the burdensome responsibilities
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Pursuit of Peace Washington Naval Conference--1921 U. S., Great Britain, France, Japan, Italy Russia not included because of Communist government Scrap large portion of existing naval fleets. Build no new ships for 10 years World’s first disarmament pact
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Kellogg-Briand Pact—1928 64 nations renounced war as an instrument of national policy. American Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand. Not enforceable—no provision for military or economic force against violators.
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years U. S. Financial Policy Causes Financial Problems in Europe $10 billion loaned by U. S. to Britain and France during WW I 1920s—trouble repaying loans Two ways to collect money: export more to the U.S. or collect reparations payments from Germany
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years U. S. Financial Policy Causes Financial Problems in Europe U. S. Fordney-McCumber Tariff— raised tariffs on imports to 60% What was the result? Americans did not buy British & French products—therefore they could not use export income to repay U. S. debt.
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years U. S. Financial Policy Causes Financial Problems in Europe Britain and France therefore demanded reparations payments from Germany. Germany defaulted on payments 1922—French troops march into Ruhr region of Germany
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years U. S. Financial Policy Causes Financial Problems in Europe American Charles G. Dawes traveled to Germany to negotiate American loans to Germany. The Dawes Plan—U. S. banks loan $2.5 billion to Germany.
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years U. S. Financial Policy Causes Financial Problems in Europe Bad feelings all around
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Henry Stimson Secretary of State under Hoover 1931: Japanese invaded Manchuria
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Henry Stimson Hoped that moderates would regain control in Japan When conquest of Manchuria complete: toothless warnings to Japan (moral suasion) Hoover forbade him to cooperate with the League of Nations in imposing economic sanctions Stimson refused to grant diplomatic recognition to Japanese held territories Japan unconcerned; 1932, invaded China
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Henry Stimson Foreign policy based almost entirely on the nation’s immediate economic needs Hoover: only by resolving the question of war debts and reinforcing the gold standard could the U. S. economy hope to recover
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Cordell Hull Abandoned the commitments of the Hoover Administration to settle the issue of war debts through inter- national agreement Simply let the issue die April 1934: law forbidding U. S. banks from making loans to any nation in default on its debts Stopped the old circular system by which debt payments continued only by virtue of increasing U. S. loans War-debt payments from every nation except Finland stopped for good
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Cordell Hull Reciprocal Trade Act of 1934 Authorized the administration to negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50% in return for reciprocal reductions by other nations By 1939, Hull: new treaties with 21 countries, increasing U. S. exports by 40%
U. S. Foreign Policy in the Interwar Years Cordell Hull Good Neighbor Policy 1930s: U. S. increased imports from other nations of Western Hemisphere by 100%+ New U. S. attitude toward intervention in South America “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.” Economic force rather than military force
Prelude to War Treaty of Versailles a total failure. Germans angered and humiliated. Soviets resented loss of land
Prelude to War Lost land that became Poland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic states)
Prelude to War Democratic states had emerged in Germany Austria Czechoslovakia Italy
Prelude to War Democratic states had emerged in Romania Bulgaria Greece
Prelude to War The new states lacked democratic traditions Most had huge war debts, wide- spread hunger, homelessness, and unemployment. Several of the democracies could not handle all the problems, and dictators took over.
Prelude to War The Soviet Union V. I. Lenin became first leader of Soviet Union 1922; died 1924. Joseph Stalin took power The “Man of Steel” Sought to create the model Communist state.
Prelude to War The Soviet Union 1927—stamped out private enterprise, especially private farms Collectivized farms, owned by the state Five-year-plans to make a back- ward, agricultural country into an industrial power 1928, 1933, 1937
Prelude to War By 1939—USSR the world’s third largest industrial power behind the U. S. and Germany Stalin: ruthless and brutal—used KGB secret police to terrorize the country in the Great Purges. Had own brother killed Had closest allies killed Thousands—millions sent to the Gulag in Siberia
Prelude to War The Soviet Union Totalitarian government Executed Communist Party officials, bureaucrats, and army officers as “enemies of the people.” 8-13 million killed directly; millions more died because of famine caused by Stalin’s agricultural policies. Up to 35 million died 1927-1939.
Prelude to War Italy 1919—Benito Mussolini began his rise to power in Italy. Fascism—new political movement with a strong, central government headed by a powerful dictator. Goal: second Roman empire
Prelude to War Italy People feared a take- over by Communists and supported Mussolini 1921, Fascist Party won 35 seats in Italian parliament 1922, thousands of Fascists marched on Rome. King Victor Emanuel let Mussolini form a new government Il Duce made “trains run on time”
Prelude to War Germany 1919 Adolph Hitler joined the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party Nothing socialist about the party Basics of Nazism in book Mein Kampf(My Struggle) Goal: unite all Aryans, forming a master race
Prelude to War Germany Inferior races (Jews, Slavs, nonwhites) only fit to serve Aryans. For Germany to thrive, needed lebensraum (living space) Nazis used Depression to make a case for power March 1932—Nazis more seats in the legislature than any other party.
Prelude to War Germany 1933, President Paul von Hindenberg of the Weimar Republic, appointed Hitler Chancellor of Germany Hitler dismantled the Weimar Republic & established the Third Reich (First Reich, Holy Roman Empire of Charlemagne; Second Reich, short one of Bismarck in 19th century)
Prelude to War Japan Nationalistic leaders took control of government Led by Hideki Tojo shared Hitler’s desire for more “living space” for its growing population Also were militarists
Prelude to War Japan Militarists still expressed loyalty to godlike Emperor Hirohito 1931,Japanese invaded Manchuria
Prelude to War League of Nations tried but could do nothing to stop Japan. Impotent! 1933, Hitler pulls Germany out of the League of Nations Correctly sensing that the World War I victors were too weak to stop him, Hitler begins blatantly violating the Versailles Treaty in 1935.
Prelude to War 1935—Germany begins a military build-up. 1936—Germany sends troops to occupy the Rhineland (demilitar- ized by the Versailles Treaty) 1936—Rome- Berlin Axis Pact
Prelude to War 1935: Mussolini’s army invades Ethiopia League of Nations attempted an economic boycott. No effect Ousted emperor, Haile Selassie: “It is us today, it will be you tomorrow.”
Prelude to War The United States Policy of neutrality Trusted in Kellogg-Briand Pact Strong anti-war sentiment 1935: Congress passed first in a series of Neutrality Acts—to keep the U. S. out of future wars. Outlawed loans or arms sales to nations at war
Prelude to War Spain 1936: Spanish Civil War Royalists (loyal to elected government) vs. Fascists under Francisco Franco Hitler & Mussolini backed Franco. 3,000 U. S. volunteers: Abraham Lincoln Brigade: fought against Franco
Prelude to War Spain While Italy and Germany sent troops, aircraft, weapons and tanks to help Franco, the Western democracies only sent food and clothing to help the royalists. 1939, Franco’s forces win 600,000 lives $15 billion
World War II Begins November 5, 1937: Hitler decides the time is right to begin the quest for lebensraum “Germany’s problems can only be solved by use of force.” Focus: Austria & Czechoslovakia
World War II Begins March 14, 1938: Anschluss (union) with Austria after German troops had marched in, unopposed, on March 12. Rest of world did nothing Sudetenland: mountainous region of Czechoslovakia with 3-million German-speaking people
World War II Begins German troops massed at Czech border Hysterical lies about Czech treatment of German-speaking people in German press Work of Hitler’s Nazi propaganda chief, Paul Joseph Goebbels Britain and France promise to protect Czechoslovakia
World War II Begins September 30, 1938, Hitler invites British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Edouard Daladier to meet with him in Munich, Germany.
World War II Begins Hitler vowed that the annexation of the Sudetenland would be his “last territorial demand.” Hitler charmed Chamberlain and Daladier, who believed him. Chamberlain: “My friends. . .there has come back from Germany peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time.”
World War II Begins Chamberlain’s political rival, Winston Churchill, called the Munich pact a policy of appeasement. “Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war”
World War II Begins March 15, 1939, German troops pour into Czechoslovakia. Hitler: “Czechoslovakia has Ceased to exist.” Spring 1939, Goebbels begins propaganda campaign charging Germans in Poland were being mistreated.
World War II Begins Britain and France promised protection to Poland Some in Germany concerned that an attack on Poland would bring the Soviet Union to declare war on Germany. August 23, 1939, Molotov- Von Ribentrob Nonaggression Pact Germany & USSR
World War II Begins September 1, 1939 Germany attacks Poland beginning World War II. Tactics: Blitzkrieg (Lightning War)
World War II Begins September 3, 1939: Britain and France declare war on Germany Poland ceased to exist as a nation in 3 weeks. During the last week, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, in accordance with the Germany- USSR pact. Next: The phony war
World War II Begins Late 1939, Stalin sends Soviet troops against Finland Brutal fighting in which the out- numbered Finns fought well, but eventually lost in 3 months.
World War II Begins April 9, 1940, the Phony War ends when Germany invades Denmark and Norway Germany: the action “necessary to protect [those countries’] freedom and independence.”