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Outline. Who am I? What is research? My Research Higher studies opportunities in Australia Getting jobs in IT industry Presented by: Muhammad Aamir Cheema , Lecturer IT at James Cook University Australia, Sydney campus. Who Am I? A Student.

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  • Who am I?
  • What is research?
  • My Research
  • Higher studies opportunities in Australia
  • Getting jobs in IT industry

Presented by:

Muhammad Aamir Cheema, Lecturer IT at James Cook University Australia, Sydney campus

who am i a student
Who Am I? A Student
  • BSc. Electrical Engineering UET Lahore (2001-2005)
  • Masters by research University of New South Wales (UNSW) Sydney (2005-2007)
  • Currently a PhD Student at UNSW Sydney
  • Research Area: Databases
who am i a teacher
Who Am I? A Teacher
  • Tutor @ University of New South Wales, Sydney
  • Lecturer IT @ James Cook University Sydney Campus
  • Courses Taught:
    • Database Systems Implementation
    • Database Systems
    • Operating Systems and Architectures
    • E-Business Technologies
    • Portable Programming
    • C++
what is research
What is Research?
  • Formally “a form of systematic enquiry that contributes to knowledge.”

Is research boring and difficult???

NOT AT ALL if you like solving puzzles


Research ≈ Solving Puzzles

let s play a game 1
Let’s Play a Game1

Task: Find the missing number

Given: Data set consists of numbers from 1 to 20

Version 1:

  • Numbers are not displayed on the screen

Version 2:

  • Find the missing number from the list below


Version 1 is more difficult because:

  • No element can be seen twice
  • We cannot memorize all the numbers

1- Data Streams: Algorithms and Applications, S. Muthukrishnan

brute force solution for version 2
Brute Force Solution for Version 2


  • Is 1 missing?
  • Is 2 missing?
  • Is 3 missing? . . .


  • For each number i from 1 to n
    • Check whether i is missing or not


Space Usage: (n-1) elements  O(n)

Running Time: O(n2)

sorting a faster solution
Sorting: A faster solution



  • Sort the numbers
  • Scan the list to find missing number


Space Storage: O(n)

Running Time: sorting time + final scan

nlogn + n  O(nlogn)

bucket even faster approach
Bucket: Even faster approach



  • create an empty array of size n
  • For each element i in the list
    • Mark the element at index [ i ]
  • Unmarked index is the missing number


Space Requirement: O(n)

Running Time: O(n)

solution for version 1
Solution for Version 1???

What we have done so far:

  • Developed solution for Version 2
  • Performance: Space Usage: O(n)

Running Time: O(n)

Version 1:

A solution is required that

      • Accesses each element only once Running Time: O(n)
      • Memorizes only one number Space Usage: O(1)

An example application: data passing through a network node (e.g; a router cannot store all the data passing through it and can see each element only once)


Given: numbers are from 1 to 10

Task: Nine numbers from the data are sent to user one by one, find the missing number

Sum of the numbers from 1 to 10 is 55


Given: Numbers are from 1 to n


  • Find the sum of 1 to n numbers S=n(n+1)/2
  • For each number i
    • S=S-i
  • S is missing number


Space Usage: O(1)

Running Time: O(n)

my research
My Research
  • Nearest Neighbors Problem

Given a set of objects O, find k objects closest to any given query object

  • Objects are represented by their location coordinates


      • Find 5 taxis nearest to my current location
      • Find 3 hotels closest to Islamabad Airport
a brute force solution
A Brute Force Solution


Let q be the query object

  • For each object x
    • Find the distance of x from q
  • Report the k objects with the minimum distance from q
problems with the brute force approach
Problems with the brute force approach
  • Distance of all objects from the query object is to be calculated Running Time = O(n)

What if all the objects are moving (e.g cars on a road)???

  • To update the results, compute distance of all objects again
a better solution
A better solution
  • Compute the distance of only the objects in vicinity of the query object q

How to find the objects that lie in vicinity of q?

Use some spatial Index. i.e; grid index

circulartrip 1
  • Explore the objects around q in an iteratively increased circle
  • Use grid based index (visit the cells around q that intersect the circle)





1- Muhammad Aamir Cheema, Yidong Yuan, Xuemin Lin,"CircularTrip: An Effective Algorithm for Continuous kNN Queries", DASFAA 2007, Thailand.

updating the result on movement of objects
Updating the result on movement of objects
  • Incoming objects: any non-result object p entering inside the circle
    • Insert p into answer list
  • Outgoing objects: any result object leaving the circle
    • delete p from answer list
  • Hanlde all the object updates as mentioned above
  • Case 1: answer list contains k or more than k objects
    • Keep k closest objects and discard other
  • Case 2: answer list contains less than k objects
    • Same as initial computation except the starting radius is distk





higher studies opportunities in australia
Higher Studies Opportunities in Australia
  • Student Visa
      • Apply in any institution you like
      • Get admission letter
      • Take IELTS exam (you need 6 band overall)
      • Show bank statement
  • Permanent Visa
      • Get three year work experience in Pakistan
      • Take IELTS (minimum 7 band in each module)
      • Apply for Permanent residence (PR) visa
      • Go there and get education with benefits of being a citizen of Australia (e.g; more scholarship opportunities, HEC loan etc)
higher studies opportunities in australia1
Higher studies opportunities in Australia
  • Student Visa
      • Quick (you will not need to wait to complete 3 yrs work experience to get PR)
      • You become eligible for PR once you complete your degree (duration must be at least 2 years) in Australia
  • Permanent Visa
      • Less expensive (once you are citizen your chances of getting scholarship grow enormously)
when australia
When Australia?
  • Education in Australia is not cheap but Australia is accomodating
  • Prefer European countries or try HEC scholarships if you are not interested in settling abroad
getting jobs in it industry
Getting Jobs in IT industry
  • University degrees teach you little bit of everything
  • A regular student becomes “Jack of all trades but master of none”
  • To get good jobs, you must become “Jack of all trades AND master of ONE”

Moral: Be master in at least on skill. e.g; JAVA, C++, networking, web development etc.

Try to learn something about everything and everything about something

contact information
Contact Information
  • www.cse.unsw.edu.au/~macheema
  • Google search “Muhammad Aamir Cheema”
  • macheema@cse.unsw.edu.au