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  1. Let’s Recap • What is a tenement? • Who can give me a rough mapping of who lived where in early cities? • Who can explain to me why these people lived where they did? • What are the definitions & differences between “immigration” & “in-migration?”

  2. Solving City Problems • Fires are a constant danger in cities • Great Chicago Fire 1871 strong dry winds + factory grease & oil = 300 dead, 100,000 homeless

  3. Solving City Problems • Overpopulation as people crowded into cities • Lack of sanitation as garbage filled the streets

  4. Solving City Problems • Air pollution from factories pumped out smoke • Crime flourishes as living quarters are so close and not secure • Deaths from spread of disease and fires in tenements

  5. Urban Reforms Building Codes: regulations that set standards for construction and safety. • New buildings required to have fire escapes & decent plumbing

  6. Urban Reforms Cities hired workers to collect garbage & sweep the streets (jobs)

  7. Urban Reforms Zoning laws kept factories out of neighborhoods where people lived (reduces pollution)

  8. Urban Reforms Cities set up professional fire companies & police forces (jobs) (safety)

  9. Urban Reforms • Street lights put in cities for nighttime (safety) • Public transportation is built in most cities (jobs) (safety) • Engineers & Architects hired to design new water systems for clean water (sanitation) (jobs)

  10. Religious Organizations Help the Poor Social Gospel: movement within American Protestantism in the late 1800s that attempted to apply biblical teachings to society’s problems • A calling on Christians to do “their duty” in helping the poor • Work with employers to get workers a ½ day off on Saturdays

  11. Religious Organizations Help the Poor • Mother Cabrini – Italian born nun that founds dozens of hospitals for the poor • Salvation Army: an international charitable organization • Food, shelter, Christian-based education to the poor

  12. YMHA YMHA- Young Men’s Hebrew Association: organization founded in Baltimore in 1854 to provide community services to Jewish neighborhoods • Helped Jewish families acculturate while preserving their culture/ traditions • Spawned the YWHA

  13. Settlement House Movement Settlement houses: community centers that offered services to the poor • Jane Addams leads the movement in Chicago • Came from a prevalent home & moved to the Chicago slums • Opens her home, an old mansion & creates the Hull House

  14. Settlement House Movement • Many women came to live there and help the movement • Education: government & English language • Health care • Recreational activities: sports, choir, acting

  15. Pressing for Reform • Women knew the only way to make an impactful change was to ban together and unite • HOWEVER…women’s rights were still lacking, without the right to vote, they couldn’t make an impact or ask for help from the government • This starts the women’s suffrage movement…

  16. BRAIN SPILL: On your index card, watch the following pictures SILENTLYand write down adjectives or words that come to mind… As many as you can think of, no limit necessary.

  17. Jacob Riis: “How the Other Half Lives” “Step carefully over this baby—it is a baby, spite of its rags and dirt—under these iron bridges called fire-escapes, but loaded down…with broken household goods, with washtubs and barrels, over which no man could climb a fire”

  18. So…. • Once the “rich” and the rest of the country sees the way the other half lives, we realize it’s time to do something about it • But what?... • What would you make the push to do?

  19. For Homework – 10 points tomorrow Make a “half-page” from scratch paper • TOP: If Jacob Riis could come and visit Newtown, or where you live today…what would he say about the living conditions & social classes? • BOTTOM: Interview mom or dad. Have them reflect the environment where/ when they grew up regarding living conditions & social class stratification

  20. Chapters 6 & 7 • http://safari3.bucksiu.org/SAFARI/montage/play.php?keyindex=31624&location=local