ch 35 sec 2 pp 1040 1045 n.
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Ch. 35, Sec. 2 (pp. 1040 – 1045). The Decolonization of Africa. Background Information. In the late 1950s, many African nations gained their independence from their European colonizers These nations faced many challenges: Creating stable governments Resolving ethnic disputes

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background information
Background Information
  • In the late 1950s, many African nations gained their independence from their European colonizers
  • These nations faced many challenges:
    • Creating stable governments
    • Resolving ethnic disputes
    • Preventing civil war
    • Industrializing
european policies cause problems
European Policies Cause Problems
  • When Europeans colonized Africa, they ignored ethnic/cultural divisions
    • Thus, it became difficult to create national identities when nations became free
  • Europeans had also used Africa for its natural resources
    • This left African nations dependent on European manufactured goods
european policies cause problems1
European Policies Cause Problems
  • Europeans also disrupted African family & community life
    • Independent nations had a difficult time building infrastructure (schools, hospitals, creating jobs) to support themselves
south africa under apartheid
South Africa Under Apartheid
  • In South Africa, racial conflict was a result of colonial rule
  • In 1931, South Africa gained its independence, but life remained unbalanced for its citizens
    • Whites controlled the government
    • The black majority were denied many rights
south africa under apartheid1
South Africa Under Apartheid
  • 1948, White government officials instituted apartheid
    • Complete separation of races
    • Established black schools, hospitals, etc.
  • 1959, Blacks were forced to move to reservations
    • Homelands
south africa under apartheid2
South Africa Under Apartheid
  • In reaction to their oppression, blacks in South Africa formed the African National Congress (ANC) to fight for their rights
    • Organized strikes and protests
    • Some members led organized armed struggles
      • Ex. Nelson Mandela (sent to prison in the 1960s)
south africa s struggle for democracy
South Africa’s Struggle for Democracy
  • 1980s, Africans continued to push for equability in South Africa
  • 1989, new white president (F. W. de Klerk) supported the ANC & released Mandela from jail
    • Later helped to repeal apartheid (segregation) laws
    • Allowed for universal elections (blacks could run for government offices)
south africa s struggle for democracy1
South Africa’s Struggle for Democracy
  • 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected as South Africa’s first black president
    • Helped pass a new constitution that provided equal rights for all citizens
south africa s struggle for democracy2
South Africa’s Struggle for Democracy
  • South Africa still faces many problems today
    • High crime rates
    • Economic dependency on foreign nations
    • AIDS epidemics