Cultural Evolution • Sources of cultural variation • Proximal vs Distal • Transmitted vs Evoked • Biological vs Cultural evolution • How do ideas spread? • How have cultures been changing? • Flynn Effect
Ideology:The body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture Ethnotheory: The theories of a culture that inform and influence cultural practices
The Jante Law (Old Scandinavian value system) “Folk theory” – 10 “commandments” for instilling in children self-inhibition and conformity Reflected in current Swedish “personality” traits – humility, lack of confidence, shyness Du skal ikke tro at du *er* noe.Thou shalt not presume that thou art anyone [important]. Du skal ikke tro at du er like saa meget som *oss*.Thou shalt not presume that thou art as good as us. Du skal ikke tro at du er klokere en *oss*.Thou shalt not presume that thou art any wiser than us. Du skal ikke innbille deg du er bedre enn *oss*.Thou shalt never indulge in the conceit of imagining that thou art better than us. Du skal ikke tro du vet mere enn *oss*.Thou shalt not presume that thou art more knowledgeable than us. The “Jante Law”
6. Du skal ikke tro du er mere enn *oss*.Thou shalt not presume that thou art more than us [in any way]. 7. Du skal ikke tro at *du* duger til noe.Thou shalt not presume that that thou art going to amount to anything. 8. Du skal ikke le av *oss*.Thou art not entitled to laugh at us. 9. Du skal ikke tro at noen bryr seg om *deg*.Thou shalt never imagine that anyone cares about thee. 10. Du skal ikke tro at du kan lære *oss* noe.Thou shalt not suppose that thou can teach us anything.
Child’s Rights Right of inheritance – regardless of gender Right to inherit property from the biological father whether or not parents are married Right to be wanted Right to a healthy prenatal environment (free prenatal care – ALL Swedes receive) Healthy perinatal environment (newborns)
The summer homestuga • 600,000 in Sweden • Privacy essential • Commune with nature • Love of nature and tradition • Scandinavians invented orienteering; hiking, canoeing, picking berries • Strong ties to farm life • Low power distance; horizontal individualists • Individualism = self-reliance http://www.odebolt.net/stuga.html
Individualism through self-development • Retreat to stuga for self-reflection, self-growth • Swedes are individualistic in order to promote personal growth, not gain advantages over others • Swedes are insular; not as open, or “friendly” toward neighbors • Equality • Allelamansratt – everyman’s right – camp, walk, canoe anywhere – nature belongs to everyone • jamlikhet – egalitarianism • High level of feminism http://www.lodgingcatalog.com
Leisure More regular exercise, including elderly No golf carts at courses People used to walking everywhere Skiing, Hiking, Camping – “Allelamansratten” Computer use more popular among youth Gardening