Climate Science What earth systems processes influence climate change? What impact will climate change have on me as a global citizen? What can be done to create a sustainable global community?
Spheres of Earth www.eoearth.org
http://thundafunda.com/uncategorized/hq-desktop-wallpaper-forces-of-nature-volcanoes-thunder-lightning/http://thundafunda.com/uncategorized/hq-desktop-wallpaper-forces-of-nature-volcanoes-thunder-lightning/ Lithosphere • Solid part of the earth. • Crust and upper mantle • ~75-100km thick • What phenomena occur in the lithosphere and relate to climate? http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/lithosphere.gif
Biosphere • Parts of the land, sea, and atmosphere in which organisms are able to live. • What phenomena occur in the biosphere and relate to climate? http://www.coralreefinfo.com/images/coral_reef.jpg http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/images/biosphere/global_biosphere_2003_lrg.jpg
Cryosphere • Frozen parts of Earth: • Snow • Sea Ice • Lake Ice/River Ice • Frozen ground and permafrost. • Glaciers • Ice Sheets http://earth.rice.edu/mtpe/cryo/cryosphere/what_images/ramseier_aerial_view.jpg • What phenomena occur in the cryosphere and relate to climate? http://www.digitaluniverse.net/images/19061/350x0/scale/CryosphereThm.jpg
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/images/wave_ucar.jpghttp://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/images/wave_ucar.jpg Hydrosphere • Combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of the planet. • What phenomena occur in the hydrosphere and relate to climate? http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/hydrocycle.gif
Atmosphere http://www.theozonehole.com/images/atmospbhere.gif • The gaseous envelope surrounding the earth. • Exosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, & Troposphere. http://www.williamsclass.com/EighthScienceWork/Atmosphere/AtmosphereEarth.jpg • What phenomena occur in the atmosphere and relate to climate?
Anthrosphere • The anthrosphere is that part of the environment that is made or modified byhumans for use in human activities. • What phenomena occur in the anthrosphere and relate to climate http://www.phys.port.ac.uk/units/2007/global/Anthrosphere.gif
Solar energy heats the atmosphere • Energy from the sun • Heats air • Moves air • Creates seasons • Influences weather and climate • Solar radiation is highest near the equator
Solar energy creates seasons • Because the Earth is tilted • Each hemisphere tilts toward the sun for half the year • Results in a change of seasons • Equatorial regions are unaffected by this tilt, so days average 12 hours through the year
Solar energy causes air to circulate • Air near Earth’s surface is warmer and moister than air at higher latitudes • Convective circulation= less dense, warmer air rises and creates vertical currents • Rising air expands and cools • Cool air descends and becomes denser, replacing warm air • Influences both weather and climate FROM http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/images/atmosphere_mural_jpg_image.html
What processes make weather on a global scale? DIFFERENTIAL HEATING OF EARTH’S SURFACE ROTATION OF THE EARTH GLOBAL PATTERN OF: 1) PREVAILING WINDS 2) LATITUDINAL BELTS OF HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE FROM http://user.gs.rmit.edu.au/caa/global/coriolis.html
The atmosphere drives weather and climate • Weather = specifies atmospheric conditions over short time periods and within a small geographic areas. • Climate = describes patterns of atmospheric conditions across large geographic regions over long periods of time • Mark Twain said “Climate is what we expect; weather is what we get” http://www.london.ca/Emergency_Management/images/lightning.png
Natural causes of climate variation • Atmosphere • Sun • Milankovitch Cycles • Ocean atmosphere interactions • El Nino/La Nina • Ocean Circulation • Volcanoes
The Greenhouse Effect - Atmosphere http://www.ecoslopes.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/greenhouse-effect-solutions-300x225.jpg http://www.sciencebuzz.org/sites/all/files_static/global_warming/greenhouse_effect.gif • The atmosphere = without it, the Earth’s temperature would be much colder • Earth’s atmosphere, clouds, land, ice, and water absorb 70% of incoming solar radiation
Atmosphere - Greenhouse/Heat trapping Gases and major sources • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) = Burning fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) and other combustion reactions such as forest fires. • Methane (CH4) = fossil fuel deposits, termites, livestock, landfills, crops such as rice, melting permafrost. HIPPO VIDEO • Nitrous oxide (N2O)= feedlots, chemical manufacturing plants, auto emissions, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers http://img66.imageshack.us/img66/6246/reducingsmogpollution.jpg
Greenhouse/Heat trapping Gases and major sources • Ozone (O3 ) = risen due to photochemical smog. • Stratosphere= Good • Troposphere= Bad • Halocarbon gases (CFCs/HCFCs/HFCs) = Man-made, primarily found in refrigerants and blown foam products. CFCs are declining due to the Montreal Protocol. • Water vapor (H2Ov)= the most abundant greenhouse gas and contributes most to the greenhouse effect
SUN- EnergyBudget W/m2 Turn to your neighbor and spend 2 minutes explaining what you see.
Paleoclimatology: An Investigation • How do we know what we know? • What is a proxy? • Examples of proxies • Ice cores • Tree rings • Pollen • Speleothems • Historical documents • Coral • Packrat Middens • Resolution vs. Span
Ice CoresJim White: Stable Isotope Lab @ CU http://michigantoday.umich.edu/2009/11/vostok-graph.jpg
http://saima-tutkimus.fi/saimapictures/kiekkoisov.jpg Tree Rings http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/ctl/images/16thchron2.jpg
Speleothems http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/images/stalagmites_sm.jpg http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/smith2006/fig1.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a1/Labeled_speleothems.jpg
Pollen Canadian model Hadley model http://lh5.ggpht.com/_j1cdMMQnYns/TMLGrbaJP_I/AAAAAAAAJMU/2CNdQce5DKw/lavender-pollen-grain--lavandula-dentata--80200172-m%5B4%5D.jpg
Coral http://www.climateshifts.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Bellwood-et-al-Fig-1.jpg bleaching http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/fbeinecke/Bleached.coral.jpg