1 / 28

Climate Science

Climate Science. What earth systems processes influence climate change? What impact will climate change have on me as a global citizen? What can be done to create a sustainable global community?. Spheres of Earth. www.eoearth.org.

Download Presentation

Climate Science

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Climate Science What earth systems processes influence climate change? What impact will climate change have on me as a global citizen? What can be done to create a sustainable global community?

  2. Spheres of Earth www.eoearth.org

  3. http://thundafunda.com/uncategorized/hq-desktop-wallpaper-forces-of-nature-volcanoes-thunder-lightning/http://thundafunda.com/uncategorized/hq-desktop-wallpaper-forces-of-nature-volcanoes-thunder-lightning/ Lithosphere • Solid part of the earth. • Crust and upper mantle • ~75-100km thick • What phenomena occur in the lithosphere and relate to climate? http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/lithosphere.gif

  4. Biosphere • Parts of the land, sea, and atmosphere in which organisms are able to live. • What phenomena occur in the biosphere and relate to climate? http://www.coralreefinfo.com/images/coral_reef.jpg http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/images/biosphere/global_biosphere_2003_lrg.jpg

  5. Cryosphere • Frozen parts of Earth: • Snow • Sea Ice • Lake Ice/River Ice • Frozen ground and permafrost. • Glaciers • Ice Sheets http://earth.rice.edu/mtpe/cryo/cryosphere/what_images/ramseier_aerial_view.jpg • What phenomena occur in the cryosphere and relate to climate? http://www.digitaluniverse.net/images/19061/350x0/scale/CryosphereThm.jpg

  6. http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/images/wave_ucar.jpghttp://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Water/images/wave_ucar.jpg Hydrosphere • Combined mass of water found on, under, and over the surface of the planet. • What phenomena occur in the hydrosphere and relate to climate? http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/hydrocycle.gif

  7. Atmosphere http://www.theozonehole.com/images/atmospbhere.gif • The gaseous envelope surrounding the earth. • Exosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, & Troposphere. http://www.williamsclass.com/EighthScienceWork/Atmosphere/AtmosphereEarth.jpg • What phenomena occur in the atmosphere and relate to climate?

  8. Anthrosphere • The anthrosphere is that part of the environment that is made or modified byhumans for use in human activities. • What phenomena occur in the anthrosphere and relate to climate http://www.phys.port.ac.uk/units/2007/global/Anthrosphere.gif

  9. Solar energy heats the atmosphere • Energy from the sun • Heats air • Moves air • Creates seasons • Influences weather and climate • Solar radiation is highest near the equator

  10. Direct vs. Indirect Heating

  11. Solar energy creates seasons • Because the Earth is tilted • Each hemisphere tilts toward the sun for half the year • Results in a change of seasons • Equatorial regions are unaffected by this tilt, so days average 12 hours through the year

  12. Tilt of the Earth: The Reason for the Seasons

  13. Solar energy causes air to circulate • Air near Earth’s surface is warmer and moister than air at higher latitudes • Convective circulation= less dense, warmer air rises and creates vertical currents • Rising air expands and cools • Cool air descends and becomes denser, replacing warm air • Influences both weather and climate FROM http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/images/atmosphere_mural_jpg_image.html

  14. What processes make weather on a global scale? DIFFERENTIAL HEATING OF EARTH’S SURFACE ROTATION OF THE EARTH GLOBAL PATTERN OF: 1) PREVAILING WINDS 2) LATITUDINAL BELTS OF HIGH AND LOW PRESSURE FROM http://user.gs.rmit.edu.au/caa/global/coriolis.html

  15. The atmosphere drives weather and climate • Weather = specifies atmospheric conditions over short time periods and within a small geographic areas. • Climate = describes patterns of atmospheric conditions across large geographic regions over long periods of time • Mark Twain said “Climate is what we expect; weather is what we get” http://www.london.ca/Emergency_Management/images/lightning.png

  16. Graphs of climatic factors through time

  17. Natural causes of climate variation • Atmosphere • Sun • Milankovitch Cycles • Ocean atmosphere interactions • El Nino/La Nina • Ocean Circulation • Volcanoes

  18. The Greenhouse Effect - Atmosphere http://www.ecoslopes.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/greenhouse-effect-solutions-300x225.jpg http://www.sciencebuzz.org/sites/all/files_static/global_warming/greenhouse_effect.gif • The atmosphere = without it, the Earth’s temperature would be much colder • Earth’s atmosphere, clouds, land, ice, and water absorb 70% of incoming solar radiation

  19. Atmosphere - Greenhouse/Heat trapping Gases and major sources • Carbon Dioxide (CO2) = Burning fossil fuels (oil, coal, natural gas) and other combustion reactions such as forest fires. • Methane (CH4) = fossil fuel deposits, termites, livestock, landfills, crops such as rice, melting permafrost. HIPPO VIDEO • Nitrous oxide (N2O)= feedlots, chemical manufacturing plants, auto emissions, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizers http://img66.imageshack.us/img66/6246/reducingsmogpollution.jpg

  20. Greenhouse/Heat trapping Gases and major sources • Ozone (O3 ) = risen due to photochemical smog. • Stratosphere= Good • Troposphere= Bad • Halocarbon gases (CFCs/HCFCs/HFCs) = Man-made, primarily found in refrigerants and blown foam products. CFCs are declining due to the Montreal Protocol. • Water vapor (H2Ov)= the most abundant greenhouse gas and contributes most to the greenhouse effect

  21. SUN- EnergyBudget W/m2 Turn to your neighbor and spend 2 minutes explaining what you see.

  22. Paleoclimatology: An Investigation • How do we know what we know? • What is a proxy? • Examples of proxies • Ice cores • Tree rings • Pollen • Speleothems • Historical documents • Coral • Packrat Middens • Resolution vs. Span

  23. Ice CoresJim White: Stable Isotope Lab @ CU http://michigantoday.umich.edu/2009/11/vostok-graph.jpg

  24. http://saima-tutkimus.fi/saimapictures/kiekkoisov.jpg Tree Rings http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/ctl/images/16thchron2.jpg

  25. Speleothems http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/climate/images/stalagmites_sm.jpg http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/smith2006/fig1.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/a/a1/Labeled_speleothems.jpg

  26. Pollen Canadian model Hadley model http://lh5.ggpht.com/_j1cdMMQnYns/TMLGrbaJP_I/AAAAAAAAJMU/2CNdQce5DKw/lavender-pollen-grain--lavandula-dentata--80200172-m%5B4%5D.jpg

  27. Coral http://www.climateshifts.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/Bellwood-et-al-Fig-1.jpg bleaching http://switchboard.nrdc.org/blogs/fbeinecke/Bleached.coral.jpg

  28. Historical

More Related