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1.1 Knowledge, Information and Data. AIMS :. To understand the distinction between knowledge, information and data. To understand that data can arise from direct capture, or as a by-product of another operation.

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Presentation Transcript
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AIMS :
  • To understand the distinction between knowledge, information and data.
  • To understand that data can arise from direct capture, or as a by-product of another operation.
  • To describe the effect of the quality of the data source on the information produced.
  • To understand the need to encode information as data.
  • To understand the problems associated with the coding of value judgements.
  • Understand that information is a commodity and as such can have a monetary value, the level of which depends on its accuracy, its potential use and its particular intended use.
  • Describe the overheads involved in ensuring that information is up-to-date.
knowledge information and data
Knowledge, Information and Data
  • Data:
    • Raw values relating to facts, events or transactions.
  • Information:
    • Processed data.
    • Data which has meaning and context.
  • Knowledge:
    • The use of information in context, to make decisions.
knowledge or expert systems
KNOWLEDGE OR EXPERT SYSTEMS
  • Computers use human knowledge to solve problems
  • knowledge as data or rules within the computer
encoding of information
Encoding of information
  • It is often necessary to encode information as data.
  • Reasons for Encoding.
  • This can lead to problems.

Quality of Data

  • The quality of the data source affects the information produced.
    • Accurate
    • Up-to-date
    • Complete
valued judgements
VALUED JUDGEMENTS
  • What is a valued judgement?
loss of precision due to coding value judgements
Loss of precision due to coding value judgements.
  • A hotel asked customers to score their service in the hotel according to this system:

1-Excellent, 2-Good, 3-Average, 4-Bad, 5-Poor

The average mark from 100 customers was 1.8. Are these statements true?

    • All our customers think our service is good or better.
    • Our average score is good to excellent.
    • Our customers think we are consistently good.
  • Think of 2 reasons why this is not always a reliable way of storing information.
input process output
Input, Process, Output

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

FEEDBACK

data capture
Data Capture
  • Data can arise from different sources:
    • Direct:
    • Indirect:

Amazon

date stamping of information
Date-stamping of information
  • Information may be out-of-date by the time it has been processed.
  • Ensuring data is up-to-date can be time-consuming and costly.
classification of information
Classification of information
  • Source
  • Nature
  • Level
  • Time
  • Frequency
  • Use
  • Form
  • Type
problem
Problem
  • A school is planning the introduction of a computer-based attendance system for classes and registration groups. The purpose of the system is to produce information for the following end-users:
    • Class teachers
    • Pastoral managers (tutors/heads of year)
    • Senior managers (e.g. deputy head)
  • For each of the different end-users describe, with the aid of an example, information that the system might produce in relation to their requirements.
case study
Case Study
  • Collecting Information
  • Or, ‘Nightmare scheme’
  • (Pg 36-37)
exam question
Exam Question
  • Describe briefly what is meant by data, information and knowledge, giving examples of each. (6)
  • Describe three ways in which data can be or can become, of ‘poor quality’. (3)
exam question1
Exam Question
  • Travelling sales representatives working in the UK can make extensive use of company credit cards to pay for goods and services. A company credit card is one that is issued by a company to its representative. All charges and information relating to each transaction are sent directly to the company.
    • List 4 items of data which are captured each time the card is used. (4)
    • Other than payment information, suggest one other potential use for information which can be derived from this data. (2)
exam question2
Exam Question
  • Many market research firms use questionnaires as a means of gathering raw data for companies about the popularity of their products.
    • Explain why IT is widely used in market research. (4)
    • Once the data has been collected, it can be used to give the clients information about their products. Explain the difference between information and data in this context. (4)
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