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Vocative Case

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  1. Vocative Case for nouns of address (i.e., when calling someone by name)

  2. Where are they, Cornelia? Look at the big waves, sailors! Marcus, stay in the house. Do not move out of the country, Cornelius! What do all of these sentences have in common?

  3. Where are they, Cornelia? Look at the big waves, sailors! Marcus, stay in the house. Do not move out of the country, Cornelius! Each sentence is talking to a person BY NAME. That name goes in vocative case. Let’s look at these same sentences in Latin. What do all of these sentences have in common?

  4. Where are they, Cornelia? Look at the big waves, sailors! Marcus, stay in the house. Do not move out of the country, Cornelius! Ubi sunt, Cornelia? Spectāte magnās undās, nautae! Manē, Marce, in casā. Nolī movēre ē patriā, Corneli! What do all of these sentences have in common?

  5. In what case do most of these nouns appear to be? Ubi sunt, Cornelia? Spectāte magnās undās, nautae! Manē, Marce, in casā. Nolī movēre ē patriā, Corneli! What do all of these sentences have in common?

  6. In what case do most of these nouns appear to be? NOMINATIVE CASE, and here’s why. . . . Ubi sunt, Cornelia? Spectāte magnās undās, nautae! Manē, Marce, in casā. Nolī movēre ē patriā, Corneli! What do all of these sentences have in common?

  7. Rules for Vocative Case • noun of address is usually set off by a comma; it is NOT the subject of a sentence • usually is accompanied by imperative mood • vocative case looks like nominative, EXCEPT: • “us” noun  changes to “e” • “ius” noun  changes to “i”

  8. Spectā librum, puella!

  9. Spectā librum, puella! • Look at the book, girl!

  10. Ambulāte ad silvam, amīcī! ambulo, ambulāre = walk

  11. Ambulāte ad silvam, amīcī! Walk to the forest, friends!

  12. Liberā tē, captive! tē = you, yourself (acc. case)

  13. Liberā tē, captive! Free yourself, prisoner! tē = you, yourself (acc. case)

  14. Movēā casā, male vir!

  15. Movēā casā, male vir! Move away from the house, bad man!

  16. Let’s Review • Vocative case looks like nominative, EXCEPT when a noun ends in a “us” or an “ius” (singular form only).

  17. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius Form the vocative singular of each.

  18. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius 1) Anna Form the vocative singular of each.

  19. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius Anna Clara Form the vocative singular of each.

  20. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius Anna Clara 3) Marce Form the vocative singular of each.

  21. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius Anna Clara Marce eque Form the vocative singular of each.

  22. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius Anna Clara Marce eque Corneli Form the vocative singular of each.

  23. Anna Clara Marcus equus Cornelius socius Anna Clara Marce eque Corneli soci Form the vocative singular of each.

  24. agricola amicus socius Form the vocative plural.

  25. agricola amicus socius 1) agricolae Form the vocative plural.

  26. agricola amicus socius agricolae amicī Form the vocative plural.

  27. agricola amicus socius agricolae amicī sociī Form the vocative plural.

  28. Translate. Quid, Quinte, est nomen taurī tuī ? taurus, taurī = m., ???? (think about sign of zodiac)

  29. Translate. Quid, Quinte, est nomen taurī tuī ? Quintus, what is the name of your bull?

  30. Work on the land, Metellus.

  31. Work on the land, Metellus. Laborā in terrā, Metelle.

  32. Cooks, prepare the food! coquus, coquī = m., cook

  33. Cooks, prepare the food! Parāte cibum, coquī! coquus, coquī = m., cook

  34. Last One! Nolī portāre tubam tuam in casam, Iuli! tuba, tubae = f., horn

  35. Last One! Nolī portāre tubam tuam in casam, Iuli! Do not carry your horn into the house, Julius!

  36. Vocative Case • usually looks like _____ case EXCEPT • us becomes ______ • ius becomes ______ • NEVER the subject of a sentence

  37. Vocative Case • usually looks like vocative case EXCEPT • us becomes e • ius becomes i • NEVER the subject of a sentence