Freedom Riders. By: Miranda and Mackenzie. Date and Place. Spring of 1960- 1961 Travelled on buses from Washington , D.C., to Jackson, Mississippi. Their Beliefs. Support no violence Giving rights of equality to both races Their goal was to fill all the jail cells
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By: Miranda and Mackenzie
The freedom ride came to an end in the 1960, but was shortly started again in 1961
It is estimated that almost 450 riders participated in one or more Freedom Rides. About 75% were male, and the same percentage were under the age of 30, mostly evenly divided between black and white.
"You didn't know what you were going to encounter. You had night riders. You
had hoodlums . . . You could be antagonized at any point in your journey.”
~ Charles Person, Freedom Rider
In September 1961, passengers were permitted to sit wherever they pleased on interstate buses and trains, "white" and "colored" signs came down in the terminals, separate drinking fountains, toilets, and waiting rooms were consolidated, and the lunch counters began serving people regardless of race. The FBI will not say how many of the Freedom Riders were severely injured or killed.
On May 7, 1963, Sidney W. Smyer stood up during a secret meeting, announced “I’m a segregationist, but I’m not a damn fool,” and handed the US civil rights movement a watershed victory.
Smyer’s motivations were complex, but unquestionably they include his personal encounters with the array of forces that today we recognize as globalization.
This international flow of media images amplified the effects of other transnational flows — other “scapes,” in Appadurai’s well-known terminology — that inflected the self-and place-fashioning of Birmingham’s local subjects. As commodities, people, and media images flowed into and out of the city with increasing scope and intensity, their movements eroded the rituals of deference and spatial taboo that embodied segregation. Among movement activists, for example, the city’s new contexts revealed kinships in places like Addis Ababa, Mecca, and New Delhi