the skeletal system
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The Skeletal System

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The Skeletal System. Chapter 45.2. The Human Skeleton. Has approximately 206 bones! Functions : Gives Shape and Support Protection Moves Muscles Forms Blood Cells Stores Minerals- Ex: Calcium and Phosphorus Bones are moist, living tissues (not dry!). Parts of the Skeleton . 2 Parts:

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the human skeleton
The Human Skeleton
  • Has approximately 206 bones!
  • Functions:
    • Gives Shape and Support
    • Protection
    • Moves Muscles
    • Forms Blood Cells
    • Stores Minerals- Ex: Calcium and Phosphorus
  • Bones are moist, living tissues (not dry!)
parts of the skeleton
Parts of the Skeleton
  • 2 Parts:
    • Axial- bones of the:
      • Skull
      • Ribs
      • Spine
      • Sternum
    • Appendicular- bones of the:
      • Arms
      • Legs
      • Scapula
      • Clavicle
      • Pelvis
bone structure
Bone Structure
  • Periosteum-tough membrane that surrounds the bone’s surface. Contains blood vessels to supply nutrients.
  • Compact Bone- hard material found under the periosteum. Makes bones strong and capable of enduring large amounts of stress
  • Spongy Bone- network of connective tissue found under the compact bone. Hard/strong tissue. Makes bones light
  • Marrow: soft tissue in spongy bone
    • Red: produces red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells
    • Yellow: consists mostly of fat cells and serves as an energy storage
bone structure1
Bone Structure
  • Compact bone is composed of cylinders of mineral crystals and protein fibers called lamellae
  • In the center of each cylinder is a narrow channel called a Haversian canal
  • Blood vessels run through interconnected Haversian canals, which carries nutrients throughout the bone
  • Surrounding each Haversian canal are protein fibers and ostecytes(bone cells)
bone development
Bone Development
  • Bones develop from cartilage
    • Connective tissue
      • Tough, yet flexible
  • In fetal development:
    • Month 2: most of the skeleton is cartilage
    • Month 3: Ossification turns most cartilage into bones
            • Some cartilage is left for flexible areas between bones
              • Ex: tip of the nose, outer ear, and inside the trachea
  • Normal bone development depends on regular exercise and diet, mainly calcium and vitamin D intake
    • Lack of this can lead to osteoporosis
  • The place where 2 bones meet
  • Tough bands of connective tissue called ligaments hold the bones of the joint in place
  • Synovial fluid- a lubricating substance that helps protect the ends of the bones from damage by friction
hinge joint
Hinge Joint
  • Found in your elbow
  • Allows you to move arm forward and backward
  • Like a hinge in a door
gliding joint
Gliding Joint
  • Allows bones to glide over one another
  • Like small bones in your feet-allows flexing when walking
pivot joint
Pivot Joint
  • Top 2 vertebrae in your neck. Allows you to move your head side to side.
ball and socket joint
Ball and Socket Joint
  • Found in your shoulder or hip
  • Allows you to move up/down, forward/backward, or rotate in a circle
saddle joint
Saddle Joint
  • At the base of your thumb
  • Allows you to rotate your thumb and grasp objects with your hand
possible injuries and illnesses
Possible injuries and illnesses
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis-immune system attacks body tissues. Joints become inflamed, swollen, stiff, and deformed
  • Osteoarthritis- degenerative joint disease where cartilage covering the bones become thin and rough.
  • Sprain (ligament)- could either overstretch or possibly tear
  • Strain (tendon)- could either overstretch or possibly tear