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The Skeletal System. Joints. Articulations of bones Functions of joints Ways joints are classified. Functional Classification of Joints. Synarthroses Amphiarthroses Diarthroses. Structural Classification of Joints. Fibrous joints Cartilaginous joints Synovial joints.

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joints
Joints
  • Articulations of bones
  • Functions of joints
  • Ways joints are classified
functional classification of joints
Functional Classification of Joints
  • Synarthroses
  • Amphiarthroses
  • Diarthroses
structural classification of joints
Structural Classification of Joints
  • Fibrous joints
  • Cartilaginous joints
  • Synovial joints
summary of joint classes
Summary of Joint Classes

[Insert Table 5.3 here]

Table 5.3

fibrous joints
Fibrous Joints
  • Bones united by fibrous tissue
fibrous joints1
Fibrous Joints

Figure 5.28a–b

cartilaginous joints
Cartilaginous Joints
  • Bones connected by cartilage
cartilaginous joints1
Cartilaginous Joints

Figure 5.28c–e

synovial joints
Synovial Joints
  • Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity
synovial joints1
Synovial Joints

Figure 5.28f–h

features of synovial joints
Features of Synovial Joints
  • Articular cartilage covers the ends of bones
  • A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces
  • A joint cavity is filled with
  • Ligaments
structures associated with the synovial joint
Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint
  • Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs
  • Tendon sheath
types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints

Figure 5.30a–c

types of synovial joints1
Types of Synovial Joints

Figure 5.30d–f

clinical forms of arthritis
Clinical Forms of Arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
    • An autoimmune disease
developmental aspects of the skeletal system
Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System
  • At birth, the skull bones are incomplete
  • Bones are joined by fibrous membranes
  • Fontanels are completely replaced with bone
skeletal changes throughout life1
Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
  • Adolescence
  • Size of cranium in relationship to body
    • 2 years
    • 8 or 9 years
    • Between ages 6 and 11
skeletal changes throughout life4
Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
  • Curvatures of the spine
    • Primary curvatures
    • Secondary curvatures
    • Abnormal spinal curvatures are often congenital
skeletal changes throughout life6
Skeletal Changes Throughout Life
  • Osteoporosis
    • Bone-thinning disease afflicting
    • Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture
    • Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis
    • Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton