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3D Displays

3D Displays

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3D Displays

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  1. 3D Displays Display technologies seminar Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Lauri Virkki

  2. What is 3D? 3D History 3D production 3D Displays 3D now Agenda

  3. What is 3D? Eyes are average 64 mm apart Objects are seen on slightly different angle for each eye Brain processes view from both eyes into one image where objects have different perspective


  5. 3D display techniques exploit the way human vision works On display or screen eyes are focused on screen level even though images might appear to be in front or behind the display This can cause eye fatigue or other symptoms

  6. 3D history

  7. Concept of stereoscopy was introduced by Charles Wheatstone in 1830’s First ever 3D film show was ‘The Power of Love’ at Ambassador Hotel theater in Los Angeles in 1922 In 1950’s 3D films were featured in movie theatres In 1980’s and 90’s IMAX theatres showed 3D films

  8. In Japan Nippon BSII digital started the BSII 3D TV channel in 2007 In Europe UK broadcaster Sky has started broadcast of BSkyB 3D channel 3D breakthrough in Finland was Avatar in movie theatres

  9. 3D production


  11. From hype to reality In 2008 there were 8 movies in 3D In 2009 there were over 20 and they were more popular than 2D movies DreamWorks Animation no longer produce anything in 2D only 2010 football World Cup in South Africa – up to 25 games filmed in 3D 3D production

  12. Stereo pair Based on providing view for left and right eye separately by various techniques

  13. Color filters Red and green glasses Also other color combinations used No need for 3D display Can be used even on print Colors can be faded and in any are effected


  15. Polarizing filters Image for each eye displayed through polarizing filter Viewer wears similarly polarized glasses In projection screen surface must not affect polarization Some overall brightness drop Circular polarization used to eliminate image disappearing when tilting head


  17. Shutter glasses Glasses block one eye at the time in sync with display Requires high speed display Glasses have active components

  18. Autostereoscopic Each eye of the viewer sees the different image from the same display without use of glasses Narrow viewing position Binocular with one viewing position and multi-view with several viewing positions

  19. Parallax barrier Series of vertical aperture slits are placed in front of the screen that control which part of the screen each eye sees Horizontal resolution is halved Can be turned off for 2D Small sweet spot

  20. Lenticular Thousands of tiny lenses placed in front of regular LCD screen Each eye can focus on different set of sub pixels on LCD element LC lenses can be turned of for 2D viewing Slanted lenses versions for multi-view

  21. Philips optoelectronicLC-lens-switch concept

  22. Head tracking By tracking viewers head the display optics are kept so that viewer’s eyes stay in stereoscopic area Downside is increased system complexity Requires system to process tracking data like OpenCV Virtual reality systems would be an example of head tracking system integrated into monitor glasses

  23. Volumetric Use a medium to fill or scan a three-dimensional space Because depths is part of the space of the volumetric display eye convergent and focus just like in real world Swept volume Solid state system

  24. Sony prototype with 96 x 128 pixel resolution

  25. Holographic Photography technique that records image on three dimensions Each point of the holographic screen emits light beams of different color and intensity to various directions Cannot be done in real-time for video

  26. HoloVizio display principle

  27. 3D video signal Frame independent Left right independent Checkerboard Above-below Line by line Side by side

  28. 2D conversion to 3D Lack of 3D content – chicken or the egg problem 3D display not convertible to 2D cannot sell Philips has developed algorithms that derive a depth map for each video frame automatically

  29. XpanD Used by Finnkino -16 theatre rooms Total of 27 theathres in Finland Regular white matte screen and shutter glasses synced with IR 3D now - movies

  30. Dolby 3D RGB for each eye is split into different wavelengths with the color filter wheel in front of projector and dichroic filter ‘Infitec’ glasses Bio Rex in Hämeenlinna 3D now - movies

  31. RealD Circular polarization and silver screen No theatres in Finland 3D now - movies

  32. IMAX Two projectors Polarization or shutter glasses 3D now - movies

  33. JVC circular polarization Line by line or side by side Samsung LED, LCD and plasma Shutter glasses Panasonic Plasma Shutter glasses Frame sequential for full HD 3D now - TV

  34. Sharp Autostereoscopic with parallax barrier Also touch screen Sony Shutter glasses Frame sequential 3D now - TV

  35. December 19th 2009 Blu-ray disk association announced final specification for 3D Blu-ray Multiview Video Coding (MVC) codec full backwards compability with players First movies available this summer Poutapilviä ja lihapullakuuroja (Cloudy With A Chance Of Meatballs) 3D now – Blu-ray

  36. nVidia 3D vision Screen must be 120 Hz Compatible display adapter No proper standard – lots of different solutions Holographica HoloVizio 3D now – computer displays

  37. Conclusions 3D is here but will it break through at homes will be seen Well working autostereoscopic displays needed

  38. Questions? Thank you!