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Displays Chapter 8
Display Design Tasks • Determine nature of tasks that the display needs to support • Perform detailed information analysis that identifies what the operator needs to know to carry out task • Determine the characteristics of the human user who must perform the tasks
Tools & Variables That The Designer Can Manipulate • Location – XY space or superimposed (heads-up) • Color – color versus monochrome • Dimensionality – planer vs perspective, mono vs stereo • Motion – what moves, how it moves • Intensity – what is bright, what is dim • Coding – physical dimensions assigned to variables, analog vs digital, analog/icons vs text • Modality – vision vs audition • What to display – information analysis
Thirteen Principles of Display Design (4 categories) • Those that directly reflect perceptual operations • Those that can be traced to the concept of the mental model • Those that relate to human attention • Those that relate to human memory • Note that principles sometimes conflict and trade-offs must be considered
Principles That Directly Reflect Perceptual Operations • Avoid absolute judgment limits • Use top-down processing • Take advantage of redundancy gain • Discriminability: similarity causes confusion
Principles That Can Be Traced To The Concept Of The Mental Model • Principle of pictorial realism • Principle of the moving part • Principle of ecological interface design
Principles Based On Attention • Principle of minimizing information access cost (search time) • Principle of proximity compatibility • Principle of multiple resources (presenting information from both visual and auditory)
Principles Related To Memory • Principle of predictive aiding • Principle of knowledge in the world (placing visible reminders that will trigger appropriate action) • Principle of consistency
Alerting Displays • Warnings – most critical, auditory when time is of essence. Can be enhanced with visual display (flashing light) • Cautions – Usually softer auditory and/or visual • Advisories – mostly visual
Label/Sign Displays • Generally static unchanging • Must be visible and legible • Must be able to discriminate from other labels • Must be meaningful • Must be in conspicuous location and associated with purpose
Monitoring Displays • Must be legible • Determine if analog or digital is most appropriate • Analog form should follow the principle of pictorial realism • Must be predictive in sluggish or slowly environments
Multiple Display Considerations • Display layout – frequency of use, relationship to sequence of use, consistency with other displays, and organized grouping • Head-up displays • Head-mounted displays • Configurable displays
Navigation Displays & Maps • Route Lists (directions) & Command Displays (Garmin, Magellan, Tom Tom, etc.) • Maps – legibility, clutter, position representations, map orientation, & scale • 3-D Maps – mainly valuable to pilots • Planning Maps & Data Visualization – satellite maps used for city planning, zoning, tax assessment, farming, etc.
Quantitative Information Displays(Tables & Graphs) • Legibility • Clutter • Proximity • Format