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Sentence Parts and Phrases. Sentence. A group of words that has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Sentence Fragment. When a group of words DOES NOT contain a subject and a verb or DOES NOT express a complete thought. Subject. Tells whom or what the sentence is about

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sentence
Sentence
  • A group of words that has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought.
sentence fragment
Sentence Fragment
  • When a group of words DOES NOT contain a subject and a verb or DOES NOT express a complete thought
subject
Subject
  • Tells whom or what the sentence is about
  • ****CAN NEVER BE IN A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE***
  • COMPLETE SUBJECT: is the subject (nouns, pronoun, gerund, or infinitive) and all of its modifiers
  • SIMPLE SUBJECT (s): the main word or group of words in the complete subject
predicate
Predicate
  • Tells something about the subject
  • COMPLETE PREDICATE: verb plus all of its modifiers
  • SIMPLE PREDICATE (av, lv, or hv): the verb or verb phrase (main verb plus its helping verbs)
simple subject s
SIMPLE SUBJECT (s)
  • The “who” or “what” of the verb
  • Ex: The dog with spots likes to bark loudly. (dog is the simple subject)
  • Must be noun (n), pronoun (pro), gerund (ger), or infinitive (inf)
  • Can never be in a prepositional phrase
  • THERE and HERE are never the subject of a sentence
  • The subject can be an “understood you”. Ex: Bring me the remote control, please. (YOU is who brings it.)
complete subject underlined once
COMPLETE SUBJECT (underlined once)
  • Simple subject plus its modifiers
  • Ex: The dog with spots likes to bark loudly.
  • Dependent clauses modifying the subject are part of the complete subject of the independent clause. (Ex: The dog that has spots likes to bark.)
simple predicate verb
SIMPLE PREDICATE/VERB
  • Transitive verb (vt): takes a direct object (ex: We love English.)
  • Intransitive verb (vi): does not take a direct object (ex: Please sit down.)
  • All linking verbs (lv) are intransitive
complete predicate underline twice
COMPLETE PREDICATE (underline twice)
  • Verb plus its modifiers
  • Ex: The dog with spots likes to bark loudly.
  • Dependent clauses modifying the verb are part of the complete predicate of the independent clause.
  • Ex: The dog likes to bark when I’m asleep.
complement
COMPLEMENT
  • Completes the meaning of the subject and verb
  • Types:
    • Direct object (do)
    • Indirect object (io)
    • Predicate nominative (pn)
    • Predicate adjective (pa)
direct object do
DIRECT OBJECT (do)
  • Is a noun or pronoun and is never in a prepositional phrase
  • Follows an action verb
  • To find it, say “subject, verb, what?” or “subject, verb, whom?”
  • Ex: I like English. “I like what?” English is the direct object
indirect object io
INDIRECT OBJECT (io)
  • Is a noun or pronoun and is never in a prepositional phrase
  • Comes before a direct object and after the verb
  • To find it, say “subject, verb, direct object, to or for whom or what?”
  • Ex: He gave me the paper. “He gave paper to whom?” Me is the indirect object.
predicate nominative pn
PREDICATE NOMINATIVE (pn)
  • Is a noun or pronoun
  • Follows a linking verb and renames subject
  • To find it, say “subject, verb, what or who?”
  • Ex: He is a nice guy. “He is what?” Guy is the predicate nominative
predicate adjective pa
PREDICATE ADJECTIVE (pa)
  • Is an adjective
  • Follows a linking verb and describes the subject
  • To find it, say “subject, linking verb, what?”
  • Ex. He is nice. “He is what?” Nice is the predicate adjective.
appositive app
APPOSITIVE (app)
  • Noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun
  • Ex. My son Beck likes trains. Beck is an appositive.
appositive phrase app ph
APPOSITIVE PHRASE (app ph)
  • Noun or pronoun (along with modifiers) that follows and renames another noun or pronoun
  • Ex. Ansley, my daughter, loves to dance. My daughter is the appositive phrase.
prepositional phrase prep ph
PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (prep ph)
  • Group of words beginning with a preposition and ending with a noun or pronoun
  • Can act as and adjective (ex: I want a room with a view.) or adverb (ex: His house is on the lake.)
  • Must be next to the noun or pronoun it modifies.
object of the preposition op
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION (op)
  • Follows preposition and tells “what?” or “whom?”
  • Ex: The key is under the rug. “Under what?” Rug is the object of the preposition.
  • If there is no object, it is NOT a preposition. Ex. Please stand up. (Up is an adverb.)
noun of direct address nda
NOUN OF DIRECT ADDRESS (nda)
  • Person being spoken to in a sentence
  • Ex: Mom, I’m hungry. Mom is the nda.
  • Ex: Go clean your room, Rebekah. Rebekah is the nda.
infinitive phrase inf ph
INFINITIVE PHRASE (inf ph)
  • Infinitive plus its modifiers and objects
  • Ex: He likes to eat pepperoni pizza.
object of the infinitive obj inf
OBJECT OF THE INFINITIVE (objinf)
  • Follows infinitive and tells “what?”
  • Ex: I want to eat pizza. “to eat what?” Pizza is the object of the infinitive.