Schema Interoperability Liam Magee Global Cities Institute RMIT University Melbourne, Australia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

valiant
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Schema Interoperability Liam Magee Global Cities Institute RMIT University Melbourne, Australia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Schema Interoperability Liam Magee Global Cities Institute RMIT University Melbourne, Australia

play fullscreen
1 / 15
Download Presentation
Schema Interoperability Liam Magee Global Cities Institute RMIT University Melbourne, Australia
112 Views
Download Presentation

Schema Interoperability Liam Magee Global Cities Institute RMIT University Melbourne, Australia

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Schema Interoperability Liam Magee Global Cities Institute RMIT University Melbourne, Australia

  2. Background • ARC involving RMIT, FujiXerox Australia, Common Ground Publishing • “The impact of the Semantic Web on Document Management and Print Industries” • 3 years – 2006 – 2009 • Focus on: • Standards and interoperability in publishing supply chain • Evolving business models • Challenges of customer engagement • PhD (part of project): • “The Commensurability of Semantic Web Ontologies”

  3. The Semantic Web • Proposal for interconnected “web of data” • Began circa 1998 • Facts in formal, logic-based languages • Related to XML, relational databases; also AI research • Built on formal semantics, existing WWW infrastructure: • Inferences over one or many “ontologies” (formal schemas)‏ • Necessary and sufficient conditions for class membership • URI's as global unique naming scheme • But: • Complex to use in practice • Simpler approaches available • Problem of conflicting “paradigms” or “perspectives”

  4. Semantic Web – Linked Data

  5. Schemas as Perspectives... • Thesis: developed framework and software • To discover background (tacit) knowledge • Applied social science methods to examine: what perspectives underpin schemas? • How to discover this for any schema? • Look at online sources: debates in forums, mailing lists • Examine cultures... • Schemas treated as cultural artefacts • Trying to discover underlying conceptual paradigms • Framework, software: apparatus for doing this...

  6. Schemas as Perspectives...

  7. Commensurability of Schemas • Schemas, standards interoperability depend on context - no silver bullet solutions • Schema matching algorithms available • Translation of schema meanings: • Interpretating schema terms, concepts • Understanding background cultures • Analysing purpose, context of translation • So frameworks can supplement: • Help evaluate feasibility, cost, scope of work

  8. Schema Translation Scenario Problem for Translation Context of Translation Translator Estimate of work Culture Culture Schema 2 Schema 1 Degree of Commensurability

  9. Results so far... • Challenges with constructing standards • Rival standards: • case study on document formats • Microsoft and the world: OOXML vs ODF)‏ • Clearly vested economic, political interests on both sides • Other reasons: • Methodological: different approaches to classifying... • Teleological: different purposes to classifying... • Operational: different uses of classifications, data... • Semantic: different terminologies, “language games” • Theoretical: differing paradigms, perspectives

  10. Community Sector Example • “Service” paradigm: • Service provider • Client • Client relationship • “Community development” paradigm: • Facilitator • Community • Community engagement relationship • Not always interchangeable: • reflect different underlying commitments, practices, vocabularies

  11. More schemas – about schemas • Cultural context is helpful – but leads to endless interpretation? • Useful to develop taxonomies about schemas: • How are schemas developed? What methods are used? (Process)‏ • What motivates their development? (Purpose)‏ • How are they used? (Practice)‏ • What underlying theories are used? (Perspective)‏ • Accompanying methods, analytic tools, software • Framework designed as “practioner's guide” to help match schemas – pragmatic, heuristic, “guiding” emphasis

  12. Some Notes on Interoperability... • Dialogue, “principle of charity” • Costly: requires workshops, committees, time • “Minimax” strategy: minimal interoperability for maximal benefit • “Orthogonality”: different perspectives around common, consensual semantic core • Standardisation, interoperability: foster and restrain organisational innovation

  13. Cycles of Standardisation / Differentiation • Initial differentiation: • time, cost constraints, lack of awareness of other schemas • Drive towards standardisation: • sharing information, improved queries / reporting, consolidated client histories • New drives towards differentiation: • failed interoperability efforts; new, incompatible systems; new operating environments, classificatory schemes • History of document formats good example

  14. Contra Interoperability • Loss of “local” representations of meaning • Conflicting interests • Trust • Legality • Lack of flexibility • Inhibits innovation • Interoperability not end in itself – subject to intra- and inter-organisational rationales • Criteria, toolkit useful for assessing pros and cons of interoperability

  15. Thank you...