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Anonymous Sports Administration July 27, 2004

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  1. Differences in Body Image, Academic Performance, and Anxiety among 6th Grade Girls who participate in Individual vs. Team Sports within Physical Education. Anonymous Sports Administration July 27, 2004

  2. Purpose: • To research the differences in body image, anxiety and academic achievement among 6th grade girls in their first year of middle school and their participation in different types of Physical Education.

  3. Background: • Much research has been performed regarding the correlation between higher self-esteem and higher academic performance and participation in sports. • Research suggests that participation in sports will lower anxiety levels in children. • …but does participation in Physical Education with male counterparts increase anxiety? • Does participation in individual sport or all-female team sport provide a greater benefit?

  4. Why is it worth studying? • In addition to researching the physical health benefits from sports, it is also important to better understand the aspects of social health and self-esteem within sports. • Body Image, Academic Performance and Anxiety are valuable indicators of social health and self-esteem.

  5. Hypotheses • H1: There will be a significant difference in body image score between the control group (regular PE) and 6th grade girls who participate in either individual sports or team sports. The 2 experimental groups will score higher on the body image scale (more positive perception of BMI) than the control group. • H2: 6th grade girls who participate in individual sports PE will score higher on the body image scale than 6th grade girls who participate in team sports.

  6. Hypotheses Cont… • H3: 6th grade girls who participate in individual sports PE will show higher academic performance than 6th grade girls who participate in team sports PE. • H4: 6th grade girls who participate in team sports PE will score lower on the anxiety scale (less anxiety) than girls who participate in individual sports.

  7. Methods • Identify population of 6th grade girls (before school year starts). Arrange to randomly select from this population. • With random selection, separate sample into 3 groups, individual sport type PE (girls only), team sport type PE (girls only), regular PE (fitness, mixed sport, co-ed). • Identify regulation for defining “individual” sport and “team” sport. • Sports in PE classes must be similar in fitness level. • 3 sports for individual, 3 sports for team. • Try to identify extreme types of sports that would skew results.

  8. Methods Cont… • Chose “individual” sports: Tennis, Swimming, Gymnastics. • Chose “team” sports: Basketball, Soccer, Softball. • Chose to dismiss Golf, Football for possible extreme results. • Arrange for parental approval, description of types of Physical Education the girls will be assigned to.

  9. Methods Cont… • Next- arrange for Pre-Test (Body Image Scale and Anxiety Scale [MASC] ) for all 6th grade girl participants. Will occur at “new student orientation/health test.” Will give “lesson” to girls on what to expect in middle-school, challenges, self-esteem, etc. • Collect data for academic achievement. • Subjects will begin their selected course at the beginning of school semester.

  10. Body Image Scale Test BMI for all subjects. Subjects to choose from 7 body shapes that which best represents their own. Scaled to compare actual BMI and perceived BMI. Anxiety Scale MASC (multidimensional anxiety scale for children). 39 4-pt Likert scale questionnaire SCALES

  11. Methods Cont… Post-Intervention • Subjects will receive slightly different version of Body Image scale but the same (MASC) Anxiety test in Physical Education at the end of the semester. • Collect data for end of the semester grades. • Compare results for 3 groups. • Additionally, provide survey for subjects to rate their first semester in middle school – quantitative and qualitative data.

  12. Academic Achievement Body Image Anxiety IndividualSport

  13. Independent Variables 6th Grade Girls Type of Sport Individual Team Control (no sport) Dependent Variables Pre/Post test score: Body Image Anxiety Academic Achievement/GPA Variables

  14. Statistics • Calculate Scores of Pre/Post Test for Body Image and Anxiety. • Determine academic achievement with 100-point scale. • Pre/Post test analysis • Correlation – Spearman’s method • Determine Effect Size

  15. Effect Size • Power = 1 – β • Chose 2 Body Image scores [control group mean; .83 +/- .03, and individual sport mean; .85 +/- .04]. • Effect size = 0.571. At power 0.8, require n ~50 subjects per group assignment.

  16. Limitations • Confounding Variables • Attrition • Maturation • Testing • Access • Style of instruction • Previous experience in sport [wanted to control for, but very difficult].

  17. Anticipated Findings • There will be some benefits to all-female physical education classes. • Females who participate in regular co-ed physical education will tend to show less accurate perception of BMI. • Outside of study, females who participate in individual-sport physical education will exhibit traits of healthy adjustment and autonomy.

  18. More Findings • Females who participate in team-sport physical education will be better equipped in teamwork and compromise. • Overall, subjects who participated in all-female physical education classes will report a more successful first semester of middle school.

  19. References Mugno, et., al. “Sport Activity in Children and Adolescents: Temperament and Emotional Traits.” Minerva Pediatrics. 2004, Feb; 56 (1): 109-13. “Sports Lifts Esteem in Young Athletes.” [Online Source]. 1996. APA online. www.apa.org. Zander, A. “Team Spirit vs. Individual Achiever.” Psychology Today, pp. 64-68. (1974, Nov.).

  20. Zimmerman. Raising Athletic Daughters. Main Street Books, (October, 1999).

  21. END