Why Kiev; acknowledgements • Ukraine—natural place for the Russian language launch: • Ukraine was one of the countries covered by the regional project • The team involved in the national study embarked on a major effort of expanding it into a deep and srious study published as NHDR for Ukraine • Clear policy commitment to social inclusion and human development agenda • Report is the fruit of very hard work, with support of many dedicated people—we thank them all • In particular, large team of authors and national teams in the 6 countries—many are here, others follow the launch on-line.
Human Development and Social Inclusion Complementary, people-centered concepts; evolved in parallel so far • Human development isthegoalto achieve—people living long, healthy and creative lives they have reason to value; • Social inclusion isthe meansto get there; and • Social exclusion—the existence of cumulative deprivations in three dimensions—is the obstacleto be overcome to achieve the goal.
Overall objectives of the Report Understand the dynamics of social exclusion, inclusion and human development in the region since 1991 Provide tools for assessing levels and intensity of social exclusion, detecting its main causes and the risks Identify determinants of social exclusion in individual dimensions Formulate realistic, evidence-based policy responses at central and local levels to effectively address it
To achieve these objectives, we • Define the chain of social exclusion: risks interacting with drivers and local characteristics to result in exclusion status • Develop an operational methodology for social exclusion measurement and monitoring at national and local levels • Analyze patterns of exclusion • Provide policy recommendations rooted in local specifics to enhance social inclusion.
Exclusion, not multi-dimensional poverty Same methodology as MPI, but different application Social exclusion: accumulation of deprivations -Dynamic process: interaction of exclusion risks, drivers, local context; feedback loops -Relative (but not subjective): deprivations are measured relative to others in same society; but the measure is not about feelings of deprivation—it is about not having access to basic consumption basket, public services or social networks. 6
The social exclusion chain Individual characteristics gender, ethnicity, health status Feedback to traits Positive: empowered, educated, Negative – accident as consequence of informal labor Inclusion Drivers of Exclusion Local context: rural, mono-town Positive reinforcing feedback i.e. vote, voice or action Institutions, policies and values Exclusion Negative feedback i.e. informality, unemployment
The report’s quantitative underpinnings • Social Exclusion Survey in 6 countries of the region (FYROM, SRB, UKR, MVA, TAJ, KAZ) • Locality-specific data for contextualization of survey • Secondary data on all countries of the region • Development and other indicators relevant to social exclusion and inclusion
Multidimensional Poverty Approach • Same UNDP/OPHI approach as used for Global HDR 2010 for poverty • ‘Dual cutoff’ method: • within dimension: based on deprivation with respect to given dimension • across dimensions: overall threshold (number of deprivations) beyond which a person is considered socially excluded
Three dimensions of social exclusion (with 8 indicators each): Economic: Deprivation in • incomes, basic needs, • access to employment, financial services; • material needs and lack of amenities; • housing and ICT-related exclusion. Social services: Access to and affordability of • education and health services; • other public services, such as public utilities. Participation: Deprivation in • political, cultural and social participation; • political, cultural and social support networks.
Tough measurement question:How many deprivations does it take to be excluded? Threshold-number of deprivations, a matter of choice Our survey: 9 12
The cut-off line affects the share of excluded, but not countries’ relative standing
Main findings: Individual characteristics and exclusion status
Higher Human Development Index correlates closely with higher social inclusion
Drivers of exclusion and their implications for exclusion status
Specifics of local context and its implications for social exclusion
Lasting effects of environmental disasters in yet another area: social exclusion
Towards an ‘individualized approach’ to social exclusion Integrating individual risks, specifics of local context, and values.
Different combinations of individual risks, drivers and local context results in different levels of social exclusion Individual vulnerabilities (like disability) interact with local conditions and amplify exclusion Average Average risk of exclusion in the region hides significant territorial differences… Capital or economic center Disabled doesn’t mean automatically excluded! Local conditions matter Small town Village
In sum: both who you are and where you live matter If you are young person, with low education, living in a village, or a town with a single company—you face a high risk of exclusion… …and secondary education doesn’t help much in these conditions… + …while vibrant business environment makes a lot of difference + …economic centers offer more opportunities (even with low education) + …and much more if you are educated + + + 37
Conclusions Transition to a market economy in the region left some out in the cold. Reforms have not always helped to improve lives. It could be anyone! Everyone is at risk of being left out of society, not only marginalized groups. Income doesn’t tell the whole story ! To be part of society, you also need access to public services, and opportunities to participate in community life. Attitudes, local economy characteristics, policies matter No single policy can eliminate exclusion - Policies need to be comprehensive to break the social exclusion chain 38
Recommendations • Genuine, sustained commitment to social inclusion with clear targets • Preventive focus on individual vulnerabilities • Clear focus on people’s capacities • Addressing institutional drivers is crucial • Match this with deliberate efforts to change mindsets • UNDP can help: • We can generate projectable ideas • We can implement them region-wide using our country office network, and partners