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The Cardiovascular System. & Cardiovascular Emergencies. Supplies oxygenated blood to all cells in the body!!. Components. Heart – pumps blood Vessels – Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood back to the heart

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the cardiovascular system

TheCardiovascular System

& Cardiovascular Emergencies


Supplies oxygenated blood to

all cells in the body!!

  • Heart – pumps blood
  • Vessels – Arteries carry blood away from the heart and veins carry blood back to the heart
  • Blood – fluid that carries nutrients essential to cell function
the heart
The Heart
  • Located in the thoracic cavity
    • 2nd intercostal space at right sternal border
    • 5th intercostal space at left midclavicular line
  • about size of your clenched fist
  • In mediastinum
the heart1
The Heart
  • 4 chambers
  • “2 sided” - divided by septum
  • 2 upper called atria
  • 2 lower called ventricles
  • surrounded by pericardium
  • system of one way valves
path of blood flow systemic circulation
Path of blood flow (Systemic circulation)
  • left ventricle
  • aorta
  • arteries, arterioles, capillaries, etc ...
  • Vena cava (superior and inferior)
  • Right atrium
path of blood flow pulmonary circulation
Path of blood flow (Pulmonary circulation)
  • right ventricle
  • pulmonary artery
  • lung ( pulmonary capillaries)
  • Pulmonary veins
  • Left atrium
the heart2
The Heart
  • Electrical System
    • independent
    • stimulates contractions of heart
    • normally initiated in right atrium
    • if initiated from other areas = abnormal
electrical conduction
Electrical Conduction
  • Sinoatrial (SA) node
  • Atrioventricular node
  • Bundle of His

(AV bundle)

  • Bundle branches
  • Purkinje fibers
  • Arteries
  • Arterioles
  • Capillaries
  • Veinioles
  • Veins


Effect on Blood Pressure?


Effect on Blood Pressure?

major arteries and veins
Major Arteries and Veins
  • Aorta
  • Pulmonary
  • Carotid
  • Femoral
  • Brachial
  • Radial
  • Superior vena cava
  • Inferior vena cava
  • Pulmonary

Look Up in TEXT!

coronary arteries supply blood to heart muscle itself
coronary arteries – Supply blood to heart muscle itself
  • The two main

coronary arteries have

openings immediately

above the aortic valve

at the beginning of the

aorta where the

pressures are highest

  • Liquid Portion - Plasma
  • Solid Portion
    • Red blood cells
    • White blood cells
    • Platelets

Plasma - transports solids

It is basically a salt solution


Red Blood cells - carry oxygen

AKA - Erythrocytes

Hemoglobin is the substance that

combines with oxygen in a red blood cell


White Blood cells - fight infection

AKA Leukocytes

almost all blood cells (red or white) are made in the bone marrow.


Platelets – are essential for formation of blood clots. They perform coagulation.

AKA - thrombocytes


average amount of blood

in an adult is 4-6 liters.

  • Systemic Vs pulmonary circulation
  • Pulmonary artery
  • Pulmonary vein
  • Coronary arteries
  • Pericardium
  • Myocardium
you get perfusion
You get…Perfusion
  • Definition – Adequate flow of blood through body tissue or organs to meet the needs of the cell.
abnormal heart conditions
Abnormal Heart Conditions
  • Angina Pectoris
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Congestive Heart Failure
angina pectoris
Angina Pectoris
  • Decreased blood flow to heart muscle results in ischemia- lack of oxygen
  • Causes mild to moderate pain
  • Pain may radiate
  • Usually lasts 3-8 minutes (rarely longer than 15 mins)
  • IT GOES AWAY with no permanent damage to heart muscle
  • Can be difficult to differentiate from heart attack
acute myocardial infarction
Acute Myocardial Infarction
  • decreased flow of blood to the myocardium leading to death of tissue
  • may not be provoked
  • moderate to severe pain
  • Can last between 30 minutes and several hours
  • May not go away with rest, O2 or nitroglycerin
  • Immediate transport is essential
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Sudden onset of weakness, nausea, and diaphoresis
    • Chest pain or discomfort
    • dyspnea
    • irregular pulse
    • Pain in lower jaw, arms, or back
    • Sudden fainting
    • Pulmonary edema
    • Sudden death
    • Feeling of impending doom
there are always exceptions
there are always exceptions ...
  • Referred pain
  • Atypical pain
  • No pain
congestive heart failure
Congestive Heart Failure
  • Causes
    • diseased heart valves and damaged ventricles
    • Chronic hypertension
    • obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
    • often a complication of an MI
  • Heart tries to compensate.
  • Increased heart rate
  • Enlarged left ventricle
  • The heart can not efficiently pump the amount of fluid in the body and CHF develops
  • Fluid backs up into lungs or body as heart fails to pump
signs symptoms of chf
Signs & Symptoms of CHF
  • Pedal edema
  • JVD
  • Ascites
critical chf pulmonary edema
Critical CHF & Pulmonary Edema
  • dyspnea
  • rales & audible rales
  • pink frothy sputum
  • tachycardia
  • cyanosis
  • anxiety, restlessness
vascular emergencies
Vascular emergencies
  • Atherosclerosis & arteriosclerosis
  • Thrombus
  • Embolus
  • Aneurysm
athero arterio sclerosis
Athero/arterio -sclerosis
  • build up of fatty deposits & calcium
  • causes narrowing of the lumen
  • can create rough inner surface that can lead to clot
athero arterio sclerosis1
Athero/arterio -sclerosis
  • Results in:
    • restricted blood flow
    • high blood pressure
    • AMI
  • formation of clot and debris in vessels from plaque
  • can become large enough to occlude vessel
  • partial blockage = distal reduction of O2
  • complete blockage = distal tissue death
  • a thrombus that breaks off from vessel wall.
  • flows through blood vessels
  • may partially or completely occlude smaller artery
  • occlusion will result in decreased oxygen to tissue or tissue death
  • is a ballooning out of a weakened section of an artery
  • Possibility of rupture
ruptured aneurysm
Ruptured aneurysm
  • Is a bursting of an aneurysm
  • can result in rapid, life threatening internal bleeding
abdominal aortic aneurysm aaa
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)
  • Signs & Symptoms
    • “Tearing” abdominal or back pain
    • Pulsating mass in midline of abdomen
    • Unequal femoral pulses
    • Syncope
aaa treatment
AAA Treatment
  • Rapid transport
  • High flow O2
  • Treat for shock
other considerations
Other Considerations
  • other causes of chest pain
  • pacemakers
  • defibrillator implants
  • CABG – coronary artery bypass graft
rx for all
RX for all
  • High flow oxygen

(ventilate patient if needed!)

  • Position of comfort
  • Rapid transport
  • Lasix
  • Digoxin
  • Lanoxin
  • Inderal
  • NTG = nitroglycerin
cerebral vascular accidents

Cerebral Vascular Accidents



“Brain Attack”

cva cerebral vascular accidents
CVA - Cerebral Vascular Accidents
  • sudden change in neurological status caused by interference with blood supply to brain
  • obstructive
  • hemorragic
cva signs symptoms
CVA signs & symptoms
  • hypertension
  • altered mental status
  • hemiparesis & hemiparalysis
  • headache, blurred vision
  • one sided facial droop
  • aphasia
  • incontinence
transient iscemic attack
Transient Iscemic Attack
  • TIA’s
  • AKA “mini-stroke”
  • can have symptoms of CVA
  • temporary
the end

The end