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Pathologic Responses of the Nervous System. GROSS CHANGES Finding the lesion Gross artefacts Gross lesions. HISTOLOGIC REACTIONS OF CELLS. Reactions of Neurons swelling and shrinkage. Reactions of Neurons satellitosis neuronophagia. Reactions of Neurons chromatolysis

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Pathologic Responses of the Nervous System


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    1. Pathologic Responses of the Nervous System GROSS CHANGES Finding the lesion Gross artefacts Gross lesions

    2. HISTOLOGIC REACTIONS OF CELLS Reactions of Neurons • swelling and shrinkage

    3. Reactions of Neurons • satellitosis • neuronophagia

    4. Reactions of Neurons • chromatolysis • ischaemic nerve cell change

    5. Reactions of Neurons neurapraxis - loss of function only axonotmesis - damage to axons with preservation of myelin sheaths neurotmesis - severance of entire nerve fibre

    6. Reactions of Neurons wallerian degeneration and regeneration

    7. Reactions of Neurons wallerian degeneration and regeneration

    8. Reactions of Neurons swollen axons, spheroids, neuroaxonal dystrophy

    9. Reactions of astrocytes hyperplasia and hypertrophy reactive astrocytes fibrillary astrogliosis gemistocytes

    10. Reactions of oligodendrocytes hydropic swelling hypomyelination status spongiosus demyelination remyelination

    11. Reactions of microglial cells microgliosis perivascular cuffs microglial nodule/’star’ gitter cells

    12. Reactions of Schwann cells wallerian degeneration and regeneration in PNS hypomyelination and demyelination

    13. Mechanisms of Neuropathology

    14. Malformations physical infectious toxic genetic multifactorial

    15. Malformations

    16. Infectious, Inflammatory, Immune a. Viral b. Bacterial c. Fungal d. Protozoal e. Heiminth f. Immune

    17. space-occupying lesions and herniation

    18. Toxic Diseases symmetrical diffuse selective

    19. Nutritional Diseases deficiencies symmetrical

    20. Metabolic Diseases electrolytes glucose organ failure

    21. Metabolic Diseases inherited defects, especially: • neuronal abiotrophies [‘lack of trophic factors’]

    22. Metabolic Diseases inherited defects, especially: • lysosomal storage disease

    23. Vascular Lesions per-acute infarction emboli and thrombi

    24. Neoplastic Diseases brachycephalic dogs CNS - glial and meningeal tumours PNS - Schwann cell tumours secondary and axial tumours

    25. Neoplastic Diseases invade, replace or compress tissue • space-occupying effect