Pathologic Responses of the Nervous System - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Pathologic Responses of the Nervous System

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  1. Pathologic Responses of the Nervous System GROSS CHANGES Finding the lesion Gross artefacts Gross lesions

  2. HISTOLOGIC REACTIONS OF CELLS Reactions of Neurons • swelling and shrinkage

  3. Reactions of Neurons • satellitosis • neuronophagia

  4. Reactions of Neurons • chromatolysis • ischaemic nerve cell change

  5. Reactions of Neurons neurapraxis - loss of function only axonotmesis - damage to axons with preservation of myelin sheaths neurotmesis - severance of entire nerve fibre

  6. Reactions of Neurons wallerian degeneration and regeneration

  7. Reactions of Neurons wallerian degeneration and regeneration

  8. Reactions of Neurons swollen axons, spheroids, neuroaxonal dystrophy

  9. Reactions of astrocytes hyperplasia and hypertrophy reactive astrocytes fibrillary astrogliosis gemistocytes

  10. Reactions of oligodendrocytes hydropic swelling hypomyelination status spongiosus demyelination remyelination

  11. Reactions of microglial cells microgliosis perivascular cuffs microglial nodule/’star’ gitter cells

  12. Reactions of Schwann cells wallerian degeneration and regeneration in PNS hypomyelination and demyelination

  13. Mechanisms of Neuropathology

  14. Malformations physical infectious toxic genetic multifactorial

  15. Malformations

  16. Infectious, Inflammatory, Immune a. Viral b. Bacterial c. Fungal d. Protozoal e. Heiminth f. Immune

  17. space-occupying lesions and herniation

  18. Toxic Diseases symmetrical diffuse selective

  19. Nutritional Diseases deficiencies symmetrical

  20. Metabolic Diseases electrolytes glucose organ failure

  21. Metabolic Diseases inherited defects, especially: • neuronal abiotrophies [‘lack of trophic factors’]

  22. Metabolic Diseases inherited defects, especially: • lysosomal storage disease

  23. Vascular Lesions per-acute infarction emboli and thrombi

  24. Neoplastic Diseases brachycephalic dogs CNS - glial and meningeal tumours PNS - Schwann cell tumours secondary and axial tumours

  25. Neoplastic Diseases invade, replace or compress tissue • space-occupying effect