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History of the Flag

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  1. History of the Flag Lesson 1, Chapter 6

  2. What is the history of the American flag? • The Second Continental Congress officially adopted the American flag in Philadelphia on June 14, 1777 . • The design called for • 13 stripes, alternating red and white • A union—the upper left corner of the flag—with13 stars, white in a blue field • Francis Hopkinson is probably responsible for the stars in the American flag. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  3. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • During the Revolutionary War, patriots made flags for our new nation. • Betsy Ross • The claim that she designed the first flag of the United States is based on family traditions. Grandson William J. Canby claimed Grandma Betsy made the 1st flag. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  4. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • Grand Union Flag • First flag of the colonists that looked like the present Stars and Stripes • Also known as the Congress Colors, the “First Navy Ensign, or the Cambridge Flag • Design: 13 stripes, blue field with two crosses Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  5. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • In 1794, Congress passed an act requiring that the flag have 15 stars and 15 stripes. • This became the official flag from 1795 to 1818. • It played a role in historic events. • Inspired the “Star Spangled Banner” Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  6. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • Capt Samuel C. Reid, USN, suggested • Constant of 13 stripes, but one star added to blue field for each new state added to Union • April 4, 1818: President Monroe accepted bill that reflected Reid’s ideas. • Capt William Driver called the flag “Old Glory” before a voyage. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  7. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • The flag changed as new states were admitted to the Union. • Last added stars were for Arizona, New Mexico, Alaska and Hawaii. • With the 50-star flag came a new design and arrangement of stars in the union. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  8. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • Colors used in the American flag • White: purity and innocence • Red: hardiness and valor • Blue: vigilance, perseverance, and justice • An American flag with 50 stars was raised for the first time on July 4, 1960, at Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor. • The American flag is traditionally a symbol of liberty and freedom. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  9. What is the history of the American flag? (cont’d) • Elements in the design of today’s flag • 13 horizontal stripes—7 red and 6 white, alternating • Union of white, five-pointed stars on blue field • Blue field in the upper quarter of the flag next to the staff, extending to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe from the top • Number of stars equal to the number of states in the Union Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  10. What laws and regulations govern the flag? • United States Code • Can be found in the Congressional Archives in Washington DC • Executive orders and presidential proclamations Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  11. When should the flag be displayed? • Display flag only from sunrise to sunset on buildings and on stationary flagstaffs in the open. • Can display all-weather flag 24 hours a day if properly lit at night. • Can display flag in good weather on all days, especially certain holidays. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  12. Displaying the Flag • January (3) February (3) • March (1?) April (1?) • May (2) June (1) • July (1) August (?) • September (3) October (2) • November (3) December (2)

  13. January – New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King Day, Inauguration Day • February – Lincoln’s Birthday, Washington’s Birthday, Presidents’ Day • March/April – Easter • May – Armed Forces Day, Memorial Day • June – Flag Day • July – Independence Day • August -- 000000 Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  14. September – Labor Day, Patriot Day, Constitution Day • October – Columbus Day, Navy Day • November – Election Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day • December – Pearl Harbor Day, Christmas Day Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  15. When should the flag be displayed? (cont’d) • The flag should be displayed • Daily on or near the main administration building of every public institution • On election days in or near every polling place • During school days in or near every schoolhouse Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  16. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? • In a procession with another flag or flags • Marching right or front and center of line • On a float in a parade • On staff or suspended, folds falling free • On a vehicle, railroad train, or boat • Not draped over any surface • On a motorcar • Staff attached to chassis or right fender Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  17. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • No other flags or pennants above it • Exceptions: services at sea, U.N. flag • National colors only on vehicles designed for colors and color guards • If displayed with crossed staffs, flag on and staff in front Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  18. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • Display flag flat or hanging free. • With other flags of states/localities/societies • On separate staffs: Flag in center, at highest point • Hoist American flag first, lower last • On same halyard: American flag at highest point • No other flags/pennants above or to right of American flag Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  19. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • With flags of other nations • Separate staffs, equal size, same height • On horizontal staff or angled staff from windowsill, balcony, or front of building • Union at peak of staff (unless at half-staff) • Over a sidewalk, on rope from house to pole • Hoist out from building, union first Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  20. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • Against a wall or in a window • Union uppermost, to flag’s own right • Over the middle of the street • Vertically, union toward north or east • Flat on speaker’s platform • Above and behind speaker • In ceremony for unveiling statue/monument • Not as covering for object Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  21. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • When flying the flag at half-staff • First, hoist it to the peak for an instant. • Then, lower it to the half-staff position. • Before it is lowered for the day, hoist it to the peak again. • On Memorial Day, display the flag at half-staff until noon only. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  22. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • Presidential order: Fly flag at half-staff upon death of important government figures. • Flag may be displayed at half-staff for death of other officials or foreign dignitaries. • Governor of state/territory/possession may decide to fly national flag at half-staff upon death of present or former official of that government. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  23. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • Fly flag at half-staff after death of • President or former president • Vice president, Chief Justice, retired Chief Justice, or Speaker of the House • Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, secretary of an executive or military department, former vice president, governor of a state/territory/possession • Member of Congress Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  24. How should the flag be positioned and displayed? (cont’d) • When covering a casket • Place flag with union at head and over left shoulder. Do not lower flag into grave or let it touch ground. • When displayed with United Nations flag • American flag should be on right and above United Nations flag. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  25. What is the proper way to show respect for the flag? • Never dip the flag to any person or thing. • Never display the flag with the union down, except as a signal of dire distress. • Never let the flag touch anything beneath it. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  26. What is the proper way to show respect for the flag? (cont’d) • Never carry the flag flat or horizontally. • Never use the flag as apparel, bedding, or drapery. • When using bunting, always arrange it with blue above, white in the middle, and red below. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  27. What is the proper way to show respect for the flag? (cont’d) • Never use or store the flag in a way that might tear, soil, or damage it. • Never use the flag as a ceiling covering. • Do not put any markings on the flag. • Never use the flag to receive, hold, carry, or deliver anything. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  28. What is the proper way to show respect for the flag? (cont’d) • Never use the flag for advertising. • Never use any part of the flag as a costume or athletic uniform. • Wear a flag pin on the left lapel near the heart. • If a flag is worn out, destroy it in a dignified way (burning). Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  29. What courtesies should be rendered to the flag and the National Anthem? • The National Anthem is played at most flag ceremonies. • Parades, reveille, retreat, prior to events • Sometimes, “To the Colors,” a bugle call, is used instead. It is given the same respect as the National Anthem. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  30. What courtesies should be rendered to the flag and the National Anthem? (cont’d) • Military and civilian courtesies for flag ceremonies • When indoors – stand at attention and face the music • When outdoors in uniform – stand at attention, face music, and salute • If flag is not visible, face the music. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  31. What courtesies should be rendered to the flag and the National Anthem? (cont’d) • When outdoors in civilian clothes • When a flag is escorted past outdoors • When a flag is on a stationary flagstaff • When a flag is small or cased and folded • When indoors in civilian clothing • During indoor ceremonies Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  32. What courtesies should be rendered to the flag and the National Anthem? (cont’d) • When riding in a civilian or military vehicle • When the flag is at half-staff • When the flag is hoisted, is lowered, or passes by • When the National Anthem is played Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  33. Types of Flags • Base Flag – used in fair weather from sunrise to sunset • All Purpose Flag – used in any weather and flown 24 hours a day • Ceremonial Flag – used in parades with 2 or more squadrons; has 3” gold fringe on 3 sides of flag

  34. Organizational Flag – used when there are less than 2 squadrons; has gold fringe on 3 sides • Transportation Flag – used for all motorized vehicles

  35. What courtesies should be rendered to the flag and the National Anthem? (cont’d) • The National Anthem • Was written by Francis Scott Key • Was inspired by the sight of an American flag waving over Fort McHenry after a British attack • Began as a poem and became the National Anthem of the United States Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  36. What is the significance of the Pledge of Allegiance? • The original • Written in the office of a Boston magazine • Intended to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America • First published and used in 1892 • Authorship claimed by two people Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  37. What is the significance of the Pledge of Allegiance? (cont’d) • 1923: Wording changed from “my flag” to “the flag of the United States.” 1945: • Congress recognized Francis M. Bellamy as the author. • 1954: Words “under God” were added. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  38. What is the significance of the Pledge of Allegiance? (cont’d) • Purposes of the Pledge • Expresses patriotism and loyalty • Expresses the freedom of our nation • Reminds us of our duty to preserve liberty and justice for all Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  39. What is the significance of the Pledge of Allegiance? (cont’d) • Reciting the Pledge • Come to attention and face the flag. • When not in uniform, remove headdress and hold it at left shoulder. • When in uniform, remain silent, stand at attention, face the flag, and salute if outdoors. If indoors, stand at attention. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  40. What is the history of Flag Day? • Celebrates the birthday of the Stars and Stripes: June 14, 1777 • First national observance: June 14, 1877 • In 1916, President Wilson called for nationwide observance. • In 1949, Flag Day became a permanent observance. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  41. What is the significance of the Great Seal of the United States? • Designed to reflect the Founding Fathers’ beliefs, their values, and the sovereignty of the new nation • Completed on June 20, 1782 • Contains vertical stripes with the same colors used in in the American flag Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  42. What is the significance of the Great Seal of the United States? (cont’d) • The obverse of the Great Seal authenticates the president’s signature on many official documents. • Treaty ratifications • International agreements • Appointments of ambassadors Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  43. What is the significance of the Great Seal of the United States? (cont’d)? • Features of the obverse of the Great Seal • American bald eagle • Shield with 13 red and white stripes and blue bar • Motto of the United States—E Pluribus Unum • Olive branch and 13 arrows • Constellation of stars • Design of obverse is shown in many ways. Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  44. What is the significance of the Great Seal of the United States? (cont’d) • Features of the reverse of the Great Seal • Pyramid • Eye over the pyramid • Motto—Annuit Coeptis • Roman numerals • Words under the pyramid—Novus Ordo Seclorum Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  45. What is the significance of the Air Force Seal? • Design is based on historic tradition and symbolism. • Coat of arms with two parts • Crest • Shield • White stars • Numerals under the shield • Band encircling the design • Inscriptions Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols

  46. What is the American’s Creed? • American’s Creed—Statement about the type of government in the United States and the principles on which it is based, followed by personal commitment • Written by William Tyler Page in 1918 Lesson 1, Chapter 6, The American Flag and Other Symbols