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  1. B E C A B C C A B C A B C D D B D A C A B E B 24. D 25. E 26. D 27. D 28. B 29. B 30. E 31. C 32. D 33. E 34. B 35. D 36. C 37. C 38. A 39. B 40. B 41. C 42. C 43. A 44. C 45. C 46. C 47. E 48. C 49. C 50. D 51. E 52. C 53. D 54. A 55. B 56. A 57. B 58. A 59. C 60. E

  2. Free Response Questions/ FRQ Helpers • Identify: provide a specific answer, which does not require causal explanation • Define: provide a specific meaning for a word or concept • Describe: show understanding of a particular concept or political phenomenon • Explain: demonstrate understanding of how or why a relationship exists by clearly articulating the logical connection or causal pattern between or among various political phenomena • Compare: provide an explicit statement which connects two or more concepts

  3. Democracy • Popular Sovereignty • Liberty • Equality • Respect for individual

  4. Democracy • Initiative: Citizen Sponsored • Referendum: Legislative Sponsored

  5. A man's character may be learned from the adjectives which he habitually uses in conversation. Mark Twain

  6. Warm up. Explain the differences between Republic and Direct Democracy. When is each desirable? Exit Question Does the Initiative process have a place in modern U.S. Government? Why or why not? Give an example of its place.

  7. Two Types of Democracy 1. Direct All Vote All Participate PTO

  8. 2. Indirect Representative Republic Rule by elected officials Representatives Senators Congressmen

  9. Representative Government Who Governs? Or Has Political Power? Elite Theories Marxist Pluralist Power Elite Bureaucratic view

  10. Founder's/Framers Thoughts Direct Democracy is Impractical Too Big Fleeting Passions of the people Easily swayed by demagogues Not educated

  11. Founders Preferred a Republic Solved problems of direct democracy Mediate, not mirror Constituents

  12. In your opinion, which Philosopher was correct about human nature? Locke or Hobbes? • Topic Sentence • Explain giving at least 2 pieces of evidence

  13. Origins of the American Republic Influence of the Enlightenment Locke vs. Hobbes Social Contract Natural Rights

  14. Declaration of Independence T.J. Locke

  15. List as many forms of government as you can in 2 minutes. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  16. Articles of Confederation Nation's first Constitution Weak! NO Power to tax NO Chief Executive NO National Judiciary Couldn’t regulate Interstate Trade No National Currency Shay's Rebellion Accomplishments:

  17. Articles of Confederation1781-1789 • States rights • Powers not delegated congress • Weaknesses • One vote • No taxing powers • No commerce regulations • No executive to enforce acts • No national court system • Amendments only by all states agreeing • 9/13 required to pass a law

  18. Mount Vernon 1785 MD. And VA. Annapolis 1786 5 colonies show Shay’s Rebellion 1786 Constitutional Convention 1787

  19. Which concern of Mason’s is most relevant today? Why? • 1 pt. Topic Sentence • 1 pt. Define key terms • 2 pts. Explain giving at least 2 details

  20. Constitutional Convention Federalist v. Anti-Federalist Madison Washington Franklin Hamilton Henry Mason Gerry (Delegates) Property Rights # 1 Republican Form of Government Charles Beard Conspiracy

  21. Intent of Founders Inspired by God Elitist Beard: Economic Self Interest 1913 “Convention of the well-bred, the well-fed, the well-read, and the well-wed” Pragmatic Approach Hoffstadtler & Roche: Politicians 1948

  22. Governments of the World • Socialism: You have two cows give one cow to your neighbor.  • Communism: You have two cows. Give both cows to the government, and they m ay give you some of the milk. • Fascism: You have two cows. You give all of the milk to the government, and thegovernment sells it. • Nazism: You have two cows. The government shoots you and takes both of your cows. • Anarchism: You have two cows. Keep both of the cows, shoot the government agent and steal another cow. • Capitalism: You have two cows. Sell one cow and buy a bull.

  23. Compromises NJ Plan VA Plan Large States Based on population 3 Branches 2 House legislature Small States One House Equal representation Each State one vote Conn Compromise Legislature (Make Laws) House (based on population) Senate(chosen by state legislature with each state having two)

  24. The Federalist • James Madison, John Jay and Alexander Hamilton wrote 85 essays • Stressed weaknesses of the AOC • Convincing commentary in NY on ratifying the Constitution

  25. Commerce and Slave Trade Compromise • Congress can control Interstate Commerce • South thought the North would dominate – export duties on Tobacco • Decided Congress cannot tax exports from any state • Could not interfere with slave trade for 20 years

  26. Representation of Slaves South wanted for representation North wanted for tax purposes 3/5 Compromise

  27. Executive Branch Enforces Laws Carries out Laws Electoral College 538 electors Reps + Senators Winner take all 270 to win

  28. Principles of the Constitution 1. Separation of Powers Prevent tyranny Influence of Montesquieu

  29. 2. Checks and balances Made govt inefficient on purpose Appointments and Confirmation System of restraints in which each branch can check the other two Override veto Defense funding vs Commander in Chief Treaties and Ratification

  30. Checks and Balances • Declares acts of Congress unconstitutional • Veto legislation • Veto 2/3 Override • Creates lower courts • Remove judges • Recommend legislation • Enforces laws • Approves or rejects appointments • Appointed for life

  31. 3. Limited Government Constitutional Govt Bill of Rights Article 1 Sec 8 vs Amendment 10

  32. 4. Judicial Review Marbury v. Madison Writ of Mandamus Declare laws Unconstitutional

  33. 5. Federalism Washington D.C. National government vs State Government

  34. Federalism Why? Constitutional division of power between national and state governments. More likely to check tyranny Both Unitary and Confederal systems undesirable Unity, not uniformity Allows for Differences Keeps govt. closer to the people suitable for large nation Allows for experimentation

  35. Downside to Federalism Confusing Unequal resources Interest groups can block the will of the people Jim Crow laws Where does Colorado Stand?

  36. Different Types Dual Federalism Layer Cake Up to 1937 State and Naional govt. supreme in own sphere Cooperative Marble Cake Since 1937 Mingling and sharing powers New Federalism Devolution Shifting responsibility back to the states Welfare program

  37. National Powers 3 categories of Delgated powers 1. Expressed Powers (enumerated) elastic clause Necessary and proper 2. Implied 3. Inherent

  38. National government obligations Republican Form Protection from invasion

  39. State Powers Amendment 10 (Reserved powers to the states) establish voting requirements Vehicle code Professional licensing

  40. Concurrent Powers Power to tax Power to borrow Establish Law enforcement agencies Make laws

  41. Changing the Constitution 1. Informally (Defining what the Constitution means) Easier, takes less time Acts of Congress Judiciary Act of 1789 Presidential Actions Judicial Rulings Executive Agreements—WWII agreements Executive Orders—Internment of Japanese Plessy v. Ferguson Brown v. Board

  42. Informal Amendments • Supreme Court Decisions • Marbury v. Madison • Political Parties • Nomination process • Election process • Customs • Cabinet • 2 terms for President • Presidential succession

  43. Informal Amendments • Basic Legislation • Details were added by Congresses • Ways it interprets the Constitution and carries out its duties • Executive Actions • Presidential use of Necessary and Expedient Clause “Necessary & Expedient Clause”Detroit • Executive order

  44. 2. Formally Adding amendments Process reflects Federalism Ratification Proposal National Level State Level • 2/3 vote from both houses of Congress. • Const. Convention called by 2/3 of the States. • Ratifying Conventions in ¾ of the states. • ¾ of all state legislatures approve.

  45. "Constitution belongs to the living, not the dead" - T.J. Informal changes have allowed Constitution to adapt to the times James Madison (Father of the Constitution)

  46. National Supremacy Article VI McCulloch V Maryland National govt. supreme in case of conflict Bank was necessary and proper Power to tax is the power to destroy est. national supremacy

  47. Decentralist v.s Centralists Strict Interpretation of Const. States' Rights Approach State Closer To The People 10th Amendment

  48. Loose or Strict Constructionist? “ Congress should have expressed powers only or those implied necessary to carry out the expressed ones.” Strict Constructionist Thomas Jefferson

  49. Loose or Strict Constructionist? “A wide variety of interpretations of the Constitution should be allowed by Congress in order to carry out their duties” Loose Constructionist Alexander Hamilton

  50. Centralists Nationalists Approach Loose interpretation Elastic Clause Commerce Clause States have abused rights in the past Power to tax and spend McCulloch v. Maryland