Modifications to this presentation • S 88 has been added to explain WAAS channel numbers and using them to tune GPS receivers. • S 4 Modified • S 83 & 84 modified • S 34 modified with another line::::Many LOM’s now have a more powerful MH NDB • 30 May 2014 S 57 – 61 provides pictures of tactical GCA
Precision INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES
The following Instrument Approach Procedures will be covered. • NON-PRECISION APPROACHES (MDA) • LOC & LOC BC (Localizer & LOC Back Course) • LP ( Localizer Performance) (GPS) • LNAV ( Lateral Navigation) (GPS) • PRECISION APPROACHES (DH) • ILS (Instrument Landing System) • GCA (PAR - Precision Approach Radar) • APPROACH with VERTICAL GUIDENCE (APV) (DA) • LPV (LOC Performance with Vertical Navigation)
Precision Approaches Have an electronic glide slope Precision approaches have a Decision Height
PRECISION APPROACH DEFINITION: A standard instrument approach procedure in which an electronic glide slope is provided. PAR ILS DH
ILS The Instrument Landing System (ILS) is designed to provide an approach path for exact alignment and descent of an aircraft on final approach to a runway.
ILS Categories Category I an approach with a HAT not normally below 200 ft. 2. Category II an approach with a HAT no less than 100 Ft. RVR no less than 1,200 Ft. 3. Category III (a, b & c)
ILS RWY 10 Montgomery Dannelly Field (KMGM) Category I ILS Expanded Circling Approach Maneuvering Airspace Radius
ILS - General Information 1. Guidance Information: Localizer, glide slope 2. Range information - marker beacons / DME 3. Visual information – approach & runway lights, VASI or PAPI
ILS - General Information LOCALIZER - Provides horizontal (course) information GLIDESLOPE - Provides vertical (glide slope) guidance
ILS - General Information MARKER BEACONS and / or DME - distance guidance
LOCALIZER Loc 27R EDDV (Hanover, Germany)
Localizer Component Location Fully IFR Capable AH-64E Localizer antenna located off departure end. Sited to provide a 700’ full scale deviation indication at the runway threshold.
LOCALIZER LOCALIZER - Frequency 108.1 to 111.95 Mhz - odd tenths only. Has voice capability. IDENTIFIER - prefix “I” followed by 3 letter locator identifier - e.g. “I-OZR”
VOR - Each dot equals two degrees off course LOC - Each dot equals 1/2 degree off course. This HSI VOR indication = 4 degrees off course This HSI LOC indication = 1 degree off course .
LOCALIZER From center line 2 dots = 828’ 1 dot = 424’ 2 dots = 196’ 1 dot = 88’ 2 dots = 210’ 1 dot = 108’ Localizer off-course indications
LOCALIZER Front Course Localizer width - 4° to 5° Front Course Setup
ILS 09R EDDV (Hanover, Germany) ILS 15 EFHK (Helsinki, Finland) GLIDE SLOPE
GlideSlopeComponent Location Glideslope antenna- located between 750’ + 1200’ from the approach end of the runway and offset 250 - 600’ from centerline. Sited to provide Threshold Crossing Height of 55’ +/- 5’
INNER MARKER MIDDLE MARKER OUTER MARKER The Glide Slope Transmitter: Uses UHF frequencies 329.15 - 335.0 Glide Slope UHF frequencies are paired with Localizer VHF frequencies automatically in the aircraft’s on board VHF navigation receiver. Transmits a glide path beam 1.4 deg. wide (Vertically) Generally transmitted along the FRONT COURSE ONLY
INNER MARKER MIDDLE MARKER OUTER MARKER • The GlideSlope Transmitter • Projects a glidepath, normally, between 2 and 3 degrees above horizontal. • Intersects the IM at about 100 ft above the airfield elevation • Intersects the MM at about 200 ft above the airfield elev. • Intersects the OM at about 1400 ft above the airfield elev. • Is normally usable to 10 Nm.
INNER MARKER MIDDLE MARKER OUTER MARKER 2 dots = 50’ 1 dot = 25’ 2 dots = 8’ 1 dot =4’ 2 dots = 25’ 1 dot = 12’ Above or Below Center of Glide slope Glide slope deviation indications
Glide slope deviation indications MIDDLE MARKER OUTER MARKER
760’ LOC MDA 498’ ILS DH Loss of Glide Slope indication during an ILS approach Or Climb to MAProc. Altitude (2000’ MSL) Ref: FAA-H-8261-1A Page:5-33 This slide uses the KOZR ILS or LOC RWY 6 approach for the example Corrective Action - CLIMB to Localizer MDA or Missed Approach Proc. Altitude, continue to the MAP for the Localizer Approach, then initiate Missed Approach Procedure Ref: AIMS para 5-4-21 (a)(b) Aircraft is on ILS glideslope, above DH, but below Localizer MDA and loses glideslope signal here
LOCALIZER BACK COURSE Front Course Back Course Back Course Setup Set Course Selector to FRONT COURSE
LOCALIZER BACK COURSE Front Course Back Course Incorrect Back Course setup Causes course indicator to be non-directional
Caution on a Localizer Back Course False glide slope signals may exist in the area of the localizer back course approach which can cause the glide slope needles to present unreliable glide slope information. Disregard all glide slope signal indications when doing a localizer back course approach. X X
INNER MARKER - transmits Morse Code dots (TH-67 is Steady signal) White segment light flashes.(TH-67 remains constant) (Catagory II & III ILS ONLY) MIDDLE MARKER - transmits Morse Code dots and dashes. Amber segment light flashes. OUTER MARKER - transmits Morse Code dashes. Blue segment light flashes.
Compass Locator Usually sited at the OM Power output of 25 watts or less Range of at least 15 miles Operating frequency between 190 and 535 kHz Transmits two letter identification groups. The OM transmits the first two letters of the localizer identification group and the MM transmits the last two letters. Many LOM’s now have a more powerful MH NDB
On course, below glideslope. Inbound to outer marker Below Glideslope, right of course Above Glideslope, left of course Glideslope Intercept On course, on glideslope
Glide Slope Intercept Point FAF for PRECISION Approach FAF for NON-PRECISION Approach
ILS (Precision) Approach ILS final descent begins here
ILS (Precision) Approach G/S Intercept Point Altitude of aircraft on glide path when crossing the Outer Marker
G/S Intercept Point Altitude difference at OM onLOCvs. ILSapproach 161 Feet
Predicted Rate of Descent computations
Climb / Descent Table Ground Speed = 90 knots Glide slope angle Rate of descent 3.01o = 480 fpm 3.00o = 478 fpm Property of Lear-Siegler Inc.
Method: A Index Method
Rate of descent = 450 FPM Glideslope angle Groundspeed = 90 Knots Glideslope angle = 3.00 Place INDEX on your final approach Ground speed Result differs from TLA Chart due to E6-B’s linear computations: (making Earth flat)
Ground Speed = 80 Kts. Answer = 382 ft/min (Interpolation/Proportion) Glideslope Angle Compute your predicted rate of descent using the Proportion/Interpolation or E6-B Method What is your FPM rate of descent to fly this glideslope? Answer = 360ft/min(E6-B)
ILS RWY 06 at Cairns AAF (KOZR)
ILS RWY 32 at Dothan, AL (KDHN)